Questions and Answers

July 6, 2018

Four Functions of Management. Please complete the following assignment, incorporating ideas and concepts from the week’s lecture and/or articles. Please feel free to incorporate outside resources as well. When completing your assignment, please make sure to double space your paper. Traditional Paper Research, identify and discuss the 4 basic functions of management. Also, explain which function you feel is most important and why. The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded: Write between 500 – 750 words (approximately 2 – 3 pages) using Microsoft Word. Attempt APA style, see example below. Use font size 12 and 1” margins. Include cover page and reference page. At least 60% of your paper must be original content/writing. No more than 40% of your content/information may come from references. Use at least two references from outside the course material, preferably from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the two reference requirement. Reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) must be identified in the paper and listed on a reference page.Reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, online newspapers such as The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, etc. are not acceptable.

Introduction Management can be simply explained as the process of directing and being responsible for employees and the other organization’s resources (Drucker, 2012). Management is involved in the daily operations of a business or organization and serves to ensure that the business remains competitive, effective, and operations are efficient. Management executives are involved in the supervision of employees, development, and monitoring of organizational programs and activities, development of budgets, and setting of organizational goals (Drucker, 2012). Even though the roles delegated to management vary from one organization to another, there are certain functions that are common for any management team, as discussed below: Planning: planning involves looking at the current position of an organization and predicting the outcome of the future. It involves setting out a road for the organization towards success through the setting of goals and listing down a list of actions to be accomplished to enable the organization to reach the desired future (Goetsch & Davis, 2014). Management is involved in the process of determining where the business needs to improve its efforts so as to achieve production targets, delivery timelines etc. Good management executives have the ability to envision an organization’s future and come up with a plan to achieve laid out goals (Drucker, 2012). Organizing: organizing involves the determination of how the plans laid out will be accomplished through appropriate allocation of resources and the assembling of activities. It can be described as the establishment of the different roles of people and departments in an organization or duty allocation. Tasks are assigned to the people who have the capability to best accomplish them. Organizing also involves the establishment of rules to be followed during the process of fulfilling plans (Heizer, 2016). The function of organizing also involves staffing, which is ensuring that all the positions in the structure of an organization are filled. It is the role of management to determine what positions are vacant, recruiting employees, and training them to ensure that they are best equipped to fill different positions and accomplish their tasks and responsibilities effectively and with efficiency. Actions such as promotions, demotions, dismissals, and transfers of employees are related to the function of organizing. Leading: leading is the skill of being capable of influencing employees to work towards the achievement of certain goals or targets. It is the most difficult or challenging management function as it is challenging to influence different people to work together for the good of the organization. Leading involves the creation of an attitude that looks at work positively and focuses on the achievement of organizational goals. Activities and roles such as motivation, direction, coordination of activities, and communication are all carried out in the leading management function (Heizer, 2016). Controlling: the function of controlling can be defined as the monitoring of the progress of an organization to ensure that all processes are directing the organization towards the set goals. This function involves activities such as measuring progress, checking for deviations from the set path or plan, and reorganizing of the activities to achieve the desired outcomes (Merchant, 1982). Tools such as budgets, production records, and labor hours lost records are used to increase the efficiency of control. It is through controlling that plans are effected in an organization. Conclusion All the functions discussed above cannot be effective without a combined effort of management to interrelate them. These functions enable the maintenance of a conducive working environment for the employees to work as a team towards the achievement of organizational goals and the growth of the organization (Drucker, 2012). The amount of time or effort spent in the fulfillment of each management function depends on the position of the manager and the task at hand. References Merchant, K. A. (1982). The control function of management. Sloan Management Review (pre-1986), 23(4), 43. Drucker, P. (2012). The practice of management. Routledge. Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. B. (2014). Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Heizer, J. (2016). Operations Management, 11/e. Pearson Education India.
July 6, 2018

Career Plan Paper Instructions For this assignment, review the information we have studied throughout the semester. Think about your own goals and plans. Submit a 2 page, 12-point font, and double-spaced summary of your possible career track, including the following: Think about your life goals. What do you want to accomplish? What is your life verse from scripture, and why? (If you do not have one, think about what you might use as a verse for the year). > Short term, continue employment at GNC (general nutrition center) as store manager > Earn my certificate as a Personal Trainer and link up with a local gym > Join Airforce as Military Officer shortly after I’ve earned my degree this Summer. > Scripture: 1 Corinthians 10:31″Whether you eat, drink, or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God” > Scripture: Proverbs 16:3 “Commit to the Lord whatever you do, and he will establish your plans” Select one of the careers that you think might be a good choice for you. How do you see this profession supporting your life goals? Do they make sense together? > Personal trainer/ Dietician Life goals of helping others achieve their fitness goals as well as diet/nutritional plans & support What do you see yourself doing 5 years from now? Will you be working, going to graduate school, missions, married, a parent, a grandparent? Then, extend those same questions out to 10 years from now. > 5 years from now- In Airforce as officer, looking to go back to graduate School to earn a Masters in Nutrition. > 10 years from now- Completed my Masters degree, married, certified personal trainer, possibly working for Airforce, but not active (strength/conditioning coach, nutrition specialist) Outline, using bullet format, what you will need to do for the next 5 to 10 years to reach that goal. Remember your spiritual side here, not just required education. > Earn B.S. degree at Liberty University > Have packet approved for Air force OTS > Complete OCS > Pass selection for Officer Position > Serve term (4-6 active) > Become certified as Personal trainer via Exam > Participate at local gym as PT > Earn Masters in Nutrition at University (TBD) Describe 1 thing you will do over the next 6 months to better prepare yourself for your new career. > Continue training and elevate it to the next level to ensure I am in exceptional shape physically, which shows commitment to the Airforce Program as well as my desire to make an impact in the health department.

Career Plans and Goals For one to succeed in life, they must lay out plans and set goals about what they want to achieve in a specific timeline. Plans and goals are known to guide people towards career prosperity and leading a successful life even after exiting from active career (Nuttin, 2014). I have a job at the General Nutrition Center where I serve as a store manager. My short term goal is to continue working at the nutrition center because of the various opportunities and learning experiences the center presents to me. Since my interests are in nutrition, I believe the center will give me the necessary growth that I need to pursue and achieve my career goals. Apart from working at the nutrition center, I intend to attend a physical training school and earn a personal training certificate. As personal trainer, I will join a local gym where I will help clients acquire total body fitness by exercising and adhering to healthy eating habits using my experience from the nutrition center. Everyone has goals including maintaining fitness and good physique. Therefore, it is important to point out that while at the gym, I will ensure that I am fit in order to show commitment to the Air force program where fitness is a requirement. Shortly after earning my degree in summer, I intend to join the Air force as a Military Officer to be of use to our great nation. While setting my goals, I am inspired by a verse from 1 Corinthians 10:31 which reads, “Whether you eat, drink, or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God. This verse motivates me to lead a healthy life while at the same time, maintaining a good relationship with my creator. Five years from today, I will be in the Air force as a high ranking officer. Also, my Master’s degree in Nutrition from one of the graduate schools will be pursued during this time. My position at the air force should be inspired by my academic qualifications as this will give me an edge in addressing problems and recommending solutions from a position of power and influence (Kelaiditi, 2014). Ten years from now, I will have completed and earned my Master’s degree in Nutrition. Further, I intend to be a certified personal trainer where I will be able to offer consultancy on matters fitness while providing solutions using nutritional recommendations. Additionally, I intend to be in the force serving in a passive capacity either as a strength conditioning coach or nutrition specialist depending on my preference. I will have married by then and started a family. From the above goals and plans, it is imperative to point out that individuals should push beyond their comfort zones in order to achieve their set goals and plans. Having attended the Liberty University and earned my degree, I will have my packet approved for the Air force officer training school where I intend to pass selection for the officer position. However before joining the force, I will sit for the personal training exams where I will join a local gym facility and offer my expertise to clients. At the force, I will dedicate only 6 years by serving in an active capacity before enrolling for a master’s degree program in nutrition. As Proverbs 16:3 reads, I will commit to the Lord all my plans because He will establish them. Works Cited Nuttin, J. (2014). Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method. Psychology Press. Kelaiditi, E., van Kan, G. A., & Cesari, M. (2014). Frailty: role of nutrition and exercise. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 17(1), 32-39.
July 6, 2018

Describe the implementation Briefly describe how the program will be evaluated.

Centervale’s Juvenile Prevention Program Recently Juvenile delinquency has been a matter of great concern to the people of Centervale. The young populace has increasingly become involved in criminal activities which have in turn affected the general population. As a result of this, the Mayor has advocated for the introduction of preventive measures, which are bound to eradicate this catastrophe. The Mayor has indicated that reducing and preventing truancy, larceny or theft, and underage drinking are the city’s top priorities. In order for the city of Centervale to develop, it is necessary that precautions are taken to combat criminal activities. Incidences of truancy, burglary, and underage drinking have turned to be the city`s top priority. The future of this city depends on these young individuals who have turned to crime instead of focusing on development. Centervale’s juvenile prevention program has been initiated with an aim of looking into these issues. In order to comprehend the effectiveness of methods being used to address juvenile delinquency, the program has been evaluating different ways used by other programs. This has been done by looking at the statistics of those youths who have reformed as a result of following the set doctrines. By doing this, our program will have a chance of identifying the best way of dealing with this menace. Our initiative has established that formation of gangs is a resultant factor of a society that is uneven (Bartollas & Schmalleger 2013). This is one where the members lack; a good education, proper medical facilities, basic necessities family care and community involvement. Some of this young people result into crime in order they can manage to support their families. Choose one of these target issues as your program’s focus. In a scenario where a juvenile engages in a crime that would subject a grown up to incarceration, they are considered to be delinquent. Such offences encompass issues such as an offense against another individual or property. They also involve the issue of drug trafficking. The primary focus of this program is to deal with the issue of larceny. This is a situation whereby young individuals are doing everything in their power to enrich themselves, even if it means taking the lives of innocent citizens. They have also made it unsafe for businesses to operate out of fear of being robbed. The above issue has been contributed by the fact that most of these young people spend time together in gangs. These groups organize criminal activities whereby every member has to take part. Consequences for refusal are detrimental, a fact that leads some of them to do something that is against their will in order to fit into a gang. Select a target population—individual, family, community, or society—and discuss your analysis for determining why this issue is a problem, then create an outline with a minimum of three specific goals for your program. The target population in this program is the young adolescent individuals. the major goals include: discouraging the youths from joining gangs, providing advice to those who are already members of gangs, and coming up with best practices of preventing crime related activities resulting from juveniles. The youth are taught on the various ways they could be lured to join gangs. They also get to learn a lot about crime and how it affects people in the society. On the other hand, this young people are offered basic skills they can use to survive without the need of having to join gangs. Conversely, conflict resolution skills are taught through this program and all parties get an opportunity of learning how to interact with one another. Drug abuse is another major teaching offered to the students. One of the best practices of battling with delinquency involves organization of afterschool undertakings. These are bound to make the youth busy instead of having them idle around and come up with ways of organizing crime. Clubs consisting of both genders are useful owing to the fact that they offer the members a chance to participate in the activities they have always wanted to be a part of. Other than the recreational activities and other benefits that the members of clubs get, the youths get to acquire life skills which are essential for their own personal growth. Building upon a foundation of current trends in juvenile justice and research on juvenile delinquency, discuss how the goals of your program are consistent with current trends and your research findings. Compare similar successful programs and suggest ways to improve on an area of limitation. The goals of this program are consistent with the current trends in the contemporary society.  The act of discouraging gang involvement is bound to reduce the incidences of theft. Most of the youth related violence is bound to lead to larceny of valuables. One of the ways through which gang formation can be discouraged involves offering alternatives as clearly illustrated above. This will be effective in ensuring that their minds are engaged in beneficial activities and in turn leading to a more productive life. Some of the young people barely get advice from their parents (Shoemaker, 2013). They therefore develop the habit of doing as they please. This is likely to lead them to join other errant members of the society and also encourage them to do unlawful things since they see no wrong doing in their actions. One of the ways through which the situation can be altered is by providing jobs to these needy individuals. That way, they get to earn a decent living. Further still, they should be advised to be responsible people, since the future depends on them. Some of the programs that have used similar strategies as the ones proposed have turned out to be a success. For instance, the youth board formed in the city of New York made a tremendous change in the livelihood of youthful individuals. They went into the streets where the gangs were based and talked to them, while advising them to change their ways. In addition, they offered job opportunities to the juveniles in order for them to get an alternative means of survival. The approach also involved these people in community based projects. The detached program initiated for the youth in Boston was similarly successful. Summarize a theory of juvenile delinquency and discuss how it specifically addresses your selected target issue. Critically evaluate the theory and provide examples of how the theory demonstrates the concepts proposed in your program. Most of the cases resulting from the gangs are issues of theft. The delinquents come up with ways of stealing from the public, either by antagonizing them in the streets, or through organized crime. The latter involves coming up with specific ways of robbing a major financial hub. After providing the necessary advice and opportunities these young people require, it is possible to acquire the illegal fire arms and other harmful tools they use. These will in effect make it more secure for the residents of Centervale to traverse the streets without any fear. The juveniles have a mentality that been part of a group will make them get a better means of livelihood (Siegel & Welsh 2014). Some of them will be unwilling to down their tools of crime out of fear of retaliation from other gang members. This program has the capacity to ensure that those who decide to change the course of their lives will do so without any fear. Access to firearms is also bound to be decreased through the program, and therefore, the gangs will have no means of conducting their robberies. The illegal trade of weaponry will also be counteracted, thus ensuring that the individuals have no chance of conducting criminal activities. Describe the implementation Briefly describe how the program will be evaluated. Use external sources as your guide, explain how the program’s success will be measured, and describe new actions that will demonstrate program success to the mayor and citizens of Centervale In order to implement this program the cooperation of the local law enforcers will be very important.  The program will involve going to the locations established as the capitals for these groups of youths. Information will be collected on the reasons why they have decided to take up the initiative of disrupting peace in the community. After this has been done, it will be easy to determine the best way to deal with the concerns raised. For instance, if it is a matter of jobs, the individuals will be offered a chance to alter their lives in exchange for work. It is also expected that some of the errant youths are from needy backgrounds. They will be offered a chance to change while their family is being offered financial aid to cater for their needs. Conversely, community projects will be established as an alternative means of ensuring the youths become engaged in constructive activities. The city authorities will also be required to contribute to the program. Their assistance will be needed in offering the financial support required, by establishing correctional facilities which teach new skills and provide necessary advice to the juveniles. They will also be required to come up with community developments aimed at bettering the way of life of the people. Such include reduced cost of medical care in order to make it affordable for all in the society. Coming up with projects will also ensure that the youth get a chance to land jobs that will keep them occupied. When the worst comes, the authorities will be required to provide security to the reformed individuals and also deal with those who fail to change. Once this is done, the program will be a great success. In conclusion, there is no doubt that dealing with youth gangs is possible. It only requires coming up with the necessary means of  changing the situation. Identification of the needs of the young people is the first major step used in making the initiative progress. As it has clearly been illustrated in the above examples necessary interventions will also result in a more peaceful city, free of all the crime. Cooperation with members of the crime in reporting gangs in their areas will be of great assistance to this course. After all this has been done, Centervale is likely to become one of the best places for anyone to live in.                           References Bartollas, C., & Schmalleger, F. (2013). Juvenile delinquency. Boston: Pearson. Siegel, L. J., & Welsh, B. (2014). Juvenile delinquency: The core. Shoemaker, D. J. (2013). Juvenile delinquency.  
July 6, 2018

Module 8: Portfolio Project Important! Read First Choose one of the following two assignments to complete as your final Portfolio Project for the course. Do not do both assignments. Identify your assignment choice in the title of your submission. Portfolio Project #1: Human Resources Strategic Plan Portfolio Project #1 provides data from a hypothetical organization. The data can be found at the bottom of the page. You will create a strategic plan that aligns the human resources (HR) function with the organization’s mission, vision, and objectives. The overall scope of the Portfolio Project is to create a “Shared Services” structure for HR that will be housed at the organization’s corporate offices. Milestone Deliverables due Weeks 2, 4 and 5 Week 2: Portfolio Milestone: Outline (25 points of the final Portfolio grade) Prepare an outline of your plan project and submit it to your instructor for review. Please use APA format and include a two- to three-sentence description of each section. Week 4: Portfolio Milestone: Annotated Bibliography (75 points of the final Portfolio grade) A solid foundation of research will support the theoretical base and practical applications of your strategic plan. Prepare an annotated bibliography of the 10 or more sources you have selected. Submit the completed document to your instructor for review. Week 5: Portfolio Milestone: Purpose Statement (50 points of the final Portfolio grade) Most of us are aware of the term “purpose statement” but are unsure of its real meaning within an organization. It is a statement describing the organization’s purpose, or the reason for its existence. The purpose of an organization reflects a desired position in the marketplace. It should accurately answer to the questions below. The purpose statement is the written summary of those answers. Who are we? What do we do? For whom do we do this? How do we know when we are getting it done? The purpose statement is the written summary of those answers. The most effective purpose statements are short, concise, and direct. A good purpose statement is between 2–3 sentences. Answer the four questions above and create a purpose statement for your HR department. Submit the answers to the four questions and the purpose statement to your instructor for review. NOTE: At this stage, you will need to name your company and decide the service they provide or products they manufacture. For all Portfolio Milestone assignments: Although you will not earn points the weeks you submit these deliverables, they are required components of the Portfolio Project and you will lose points on your final project grade if you fail to submit these assignments as required by the end of the weeks they are due. See the Portfolio Project grading rubric on the Course Information page for details. Final Deliverable due Week 8 Required Topics – Be sure to cover the following: Strategic Contribution, Personal Credibility, HR Delivery Metrics, Key Performance Measurements (KPM), Action Plan for each functional area, HR mission statement, HR vision statement and objectives. Your strategic plan should include: Title Page Table of Contents Executive Summary Body of your plan Conclusion Reference Page Appendix (optional) Submission requirements: Ten pages minimum (not including the title page, table of contents, reference page or appendix) will be needed to complete the project. Support your analysis and recommendations with 5 credible sources documented in accordance with the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements. Portfolio Project #2: Human Resources Interview and Strategic Alignment Portfolio Project #2 will be a “mirror image” of Portfolio Project #1. You will select and interview a human resources (HR) professional in a leadership position within his/her company. The individual you select must be in a generalist leadership position (Manager, Director or VP). Please note: selecting a specialist (Training Manager or Benefits Specialist) will limit your ability to gain a clear understanding of the HR department as a whole. (With your instructor’s approval, you may use a specialist.) You will conduct a one-on-one interview to secure the information needed to write a paper analyzing and evaluating the “strategic alignment” of the HR department to the organization’s vision, mission and goals. Unlike in Portfolio Project #1, you will not create a strategic plan. You will secure the needed information through your one-on-one interview. Milestone Deliverables due Weeks 2, 4 and 5 Week 2: Portfolio Milestone: Interviewee Selection and Question Preparation (25 points of the final Portfolio grade) Submit the name and a brief biography of the individual you are going to interview to your instructor for approval. Also include a minimum of 15 questions you will ask in your interview to your instructor for review/approval. The questions need to be able to elicit answers from the HR professional that will ultimately uncover the current alignment of the HR department with the organizational goals, Although you will not earn points in Week 2 for this deliverable, it is a required component of the Portfolio Project, and you will lose points on your final project grade if you fail to submit this assignment as required by the end of Week 2. See the Portfolio Project grading rubric on the Course Information page for details. Week 4: Portfolio Milestone: Interview (75 points of the final Portfolio grade) Using the 15 questions you developed in prior modules, conduct your interview with your selected HR professional. Submit the questions and answers to your instructor for review. Make sure you gained all of the information you will need to complete your final analysis and evaluation paper. Week 5: Portfolio Milestone: Purpose Statement (50 points of the final Portfolio grade) Most of us are aware of the term “purpose statement” but are unsure of its real meaning within an organization. It is a statement describing the organization’s purpose, or the reason for its existence. The purpose of an organization reflects a desired position in the marketplace. It should accurately answer to the questions below. The purpose statement is the written summary of those answers. Who are we? What do we do? For whom do we do this? How do we know when we are getting it done? The purpose statement is the written summary of those answers. The most effective purpose statements are short, concise, and direct. A good purpose statement is between 2–3 sentences. Review the purpose statement given to you by the interviewee and analyze the strength of the statement based on your findings from the interview. Submit your analysis to your instructor for review. Recommended length of analysis is 250-300 words. For all Portfolio Milestone assignments: Although you will not earn points the weeks you submit these deliverables, they are required components of the Portfolio Project and you will lose points on your final project grade if you fail to submit these assignments as required by the end of the weeks they are due. See the Portfolio Project grading rubric on the Course Information page for details. Final Deliverable due Week 8 Required Topics – Be sure to cover the following: Strategic Contribution, Personal Credibility, HR Delivery Metrics, Key Performance Measurements (KPM), Action Plan for each functional area, HR mission statement, HR vision statement and objectives. Your analysis and evaluation paper should include: Title Page Executive Summary Analysis and evaluation of alignment Conclusion Reference Page Appendix (optional) Submission requirements: Ten pages minimum (not including the title page, table of contents, reference page or appendix) will be needed to complete the project. Support your analysis and recommendations with 5 credible sources documented in accordance with the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements. Note: Any documentation resulting from personal interviews by CSU-Global students are for the sole purposes of fulfilling a course assignment and will not be used as part of a larger study, published, or distributed outside of the course environment. Posted Thu Apr 5, 2018 at 10:29 am data from a hypothetical organization

Module 8: Portfolio Project #1 – Human Resources Strategic Plan Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Date Table of Contents Executive Summary. 3 Portfolio Project #1 – Human Resources Strategic Plan. 4 1.0.     Introduction. 4 2.0.     Purpose Statement 5 3.0.     HR Vision Statement and Objectives. 5 4.0.     HR Mission Statement 6 5.0.     HR Plan Delivery Metrics and Action Plans. 6 5.1.     Job Satisfaction. 7 5.2.     Diversity Management 7 5.3.     Employee Relationship. 8 5.4.     Work Environment 9 5.5.     Employee Turnover. 10 5.6.     Training; Skills Acquisition and Expertise Development 11 6.0.     Strategic Contribution. 12 7.0.     Key Performance Measurements (KPM) 13 8.0.     Conclusion. 15 References. 16     Executive Summary The discussion below covers a comprehensive analysis of the applications of the HR plans in Clays Inc. and the possible impacts. Clays Inc. comprises one of the upcoming companies in the fast food and beverages industry focused on improving quality of products and services. In turn, this is projected to give the customers a unique and fine taste of the products and high standards services that assert the value the customers induce to the company. The utilization and the application of the HR plans serve to enhance the employees’ efficacy and efficiency in treating their customers and potentials with highest regard and value. In turn, impact on creating customer loyalty, market positioning, and brand for the company. Similarly, the paper discusses the inputs of the HR plans in driving Clays Inc. employee satisfaction, work environment, job satisfaction, employee relationships, diversity management, employee and customer retention, reduction of employee turnover rates, and training deficits for skills acquisition, competence, and expertise development. The HR plans applications in Clays Inc. are fundamental to building a strong workforce and organizational culture that values respective employee input and performance. Thus, serve to shape the overall performance of the organization in the industry and the contributions it makes towards future business operations in the industry.     Portfolio Project #1 – Human Resources Strategic Plan 1.0. Introduction The discussion in this paper explores the applications of the HRM and analyzes its use to drive Clays Inc. company productivity in a highly saturated and competitive industry. Clays Inc. is an upcoming company dealing in the fast foods and beverages industry. In order to acquire a competitive edge and pose a significant challenge in the industry, Clays Inc. ought to advance its applications of the HRM as a strategic plan to enhance the employees’ capacity to deliver productivity, quality, and high standard products and services to their customers. The HRM is critical to ensure employee capacity to serve their customers, drive innovation, and meet/or satisfy customer needs in the industry. The analysis of the paper induces profound inputs in the applications of the HRM strategic plans in Clays Inc. to advance the overall company’s performance and competitiveness. Therefore, the analysis of HRM in this paper includes discussion of the purpose statement driving HRM applications, the HR vision, mission statement, as well as, the strategic goals and objectives in Clays Inc. Also, it is fundamental to analyze the focus of the HR in the company to advance employees’ competence and capacity, provide delivery metrics essential to assess HR’s value added to the company. The discussion finds it important to analyze the strategic contributions related to the HR applications, key performance measurements, and the action plan for each functional area. Thus, cover an extensive application of the HR strategic plans in enhancing Clays Inc. workforce productivity and competitiveness critical for the overall performance of the company in the industry. 2.0. Purpose Statement The portfolio project emphasizes on the effects of the HRM practices and their applications in dancing employees’ competence, skills, capacity, and productivity in Clays Inc. In turn, this forms a profound opportunity in which the HRM practices can induce value addition towards employees’ competence in serving their customers and meeting the expected results (Shaukat, Ashraf & Hafoor 2015). The HRM applications serve fundamental purposes that set a progressive path towards competitiveness and improved the overall performance of Clays Inc. in the industry. Thus, the HR application projects the company as one of the most effective in products development and service delivery to their customers asserting the significance of HRM in sustaining adequate employee training and development to meet the market expectations (Al_Qudah, Osman & Al_Qudah 2014). 3.0. HR Vision Statement and Objectives HR vision in Clays Inc. aims at providing the most transformative and diverse workforce in the industry. The transformative approach provides an opportunity whereby the employees can introduce innovativeness in the fast food industry continuously ensuring that the company meets the rapid and dynamic needs of the customers. The diversity approach provides the company with an opportunity that delivers on the differences of an extensive workforce and learning from different localities and cultures around the world. For instance, can include adopting certain cultures (best practices) from the U.S., the U.K., Japan, or any other location and incorporate the practices in their service delivery in another country. Thus, advance the company’s culture. Additionally, the main objectives of the HRM applications in Clays Inc. are intended to advance employees competence and capacity. This impacts on inducing high competitiveness for both the employees and the organization in overall. Also, the HRM plays a fundamental role in employee training and development which impacts to job satisfaction for the employee and satisfactory service delivery to their customers. In turn, this advances the customers’ treatment enhancing their satisfaction and loyalty to the company. As well, the application of the HRM practices aims at advancing the diversity management which is a strategic asset for the company in growing its organizational culture and approach to dealing with dynamic issues around the world. Thus, HRM practices are essential to guarantee the development of the best work environment with close association between the organization and the employees advancing their competitiveness in the industry. 4.0. HR Mission Statement The HR mission statement in Clays Inc. is designed to advance the employees’ competence, skills, and expertise. In turn, this is a critical opportunity for the company to advance its competitiveness and performance in the fast food industry (Hassan 2016). The fundamentals of the HR applications in Clays Inc. serves as the most progressive feature critical to improving the workforce service delivery capacity (Jouda, Ahmad & Dahleez 2016). Consequently, this has immense value addition towards the management of the workforce and their contribution to the organization’s performance and competitiveness in a highly saturated industry. 5.0. HR Plan Delivery Metrics and Action Plans The HR plan and its applications in driving Clays Inc. operations and the workforce are outlined in diverse prospective objectives. The objectives give the basis of the applications of the HR plans in driving Clays Inc. functionalities. According to Hassan (2016), the achievement of the outlined HR plans provides the delivery metrics in which the functionalities of the HR in Clays Inc. can ride on to ensure the best practices and employee competence. The improvement of the human resource capital in Clays Inc. is a fundamental venture in which must be realized by combined efforts of the company and strategic planning. The HR delivery metrics are based on the various outlined HR plans that cover diverse issues critical to the workforce functionalities and inputs in the company. These can be analyzed to include job satisfaction, diversity management, employee relationship, work environment, employee turnover, and training; skills acquisition and expertise development. 5.1. Job Satisfaction The HR plans play a fundamental role in ensuring job satisfaction among the workforce in Clays Inc. The HR plans in Clays Inc. are designed to develop the workforce into the most competitive in the industry setting an example that can be emulated by other companies in the sector. This is critical to advance the market position and status of the company advancing its competitiveness. In turn, enhance HR plans that care for its employees’ impacts profoundly on job satisfaction which is fundamental towards ensuring the employees’ commitment and loyalty to their employer (Bibi et al. 2012). The job satisfaction of the employees derived from the HR plans is attained by catering for the employees’ needs and their requirements in the workplace. This serves to give the best terms and conditions to the employees favorable to their productivity and service delivery. Therefore, a happy and satisfied employee is fundamental to the organization’s productivity and competitiveness in the industry. 5.2. Diversity Management The value of every employee in Clays Inc. is paramount irrespective of one’s background. The respect towards diversity of the employees on the basis of gender, religion, sex, race, nationality, among other connotations, is of profound importance in Clays Inc. demand equal treatment of all employees. The HR plays a significant role in ensuring the respect for the diversity among the employees in the organization. Also, the HR is critical to ensure that diversity does not become a problem to the organization rather than an asset for profound importance and competitive advantage to Clays Inc. The assurance of equal opportunities in Clays Inc. is fundamental to advancing the employees’ competitiveness, commitment, and loyalty to the organization (Kundu & Mor 2016). In turn, this serves to advance the achievements and performance of the organization in overall inducing effectiveness and efficacy of its operations in the industry. The effective utilization of the HR practices in the management of diversity in Clays Inc. presents the organization as a model in the industry. For instance, Clays Inc. HR plans to intensify the diversity of the employees by providing employment opportunities to peoples with a disability. While other organizations might shy away from such a venture, the HR plans in Clays Inc. recognizes the need to advance diversity as a strategic opportunity for the company that is bound to elevate the company’s reputation and market positioning (Kundu & Mor 2016). The chance that Clays Inc. emerges as a leader in diversity management, equality, and respect for all employees, the company is bound to generate more productivity across all its workforce. Thus, impact on high productivity, efficiency, and commitment to production and service delivery. 5.3. Employee Relationship The HR plans in advancing Clays Inc. functionalities focus on improving employee relationships. The employee relationships serve a fundamental role in the organization by shaping the conduciveness of the work environment and functionality of the employees. As a delivery metric, employee relationship shapes the functionalities, collaboration, and cooperation of the employees in an organization. The HR plans in improving the employment relationship are significant to create a conducive work environment where employees respect for each other is highly regarded as essential in the organization (Shaukat, Ashraf & Ghafoor 2015). This is achieved through conducting team building exercises and workshops that bring employees closer to one another. As well, the employee relationship as an aspect of the HR plans in Clays Inc. focuses on enhancing their cooperation and collaboration that is critical to skills sharing, knowledge, expertise, and resources among the employees. The achievements of the overall organization’s performance are determined by the cohesiveness of the workforce towards common goals and objectives (Singh Badhesha et al. 2008). This asserts the significance of conducive employee relationship in Clays Inc. Therefore, the HR has the mandate to ensure that the employees are efficient, respect each other, and have a strong sense of teamwork. Thus, develop a strong organizational culture that sustains the need for the employees to help each and assist improve the respective performance. 5.4. Work Environment The HR plans play a fundamental role is sustaining conducive work environment in Clays Inc. It is critical that the HR plans serve as the foundation for the employees’ conduct and expectations in the organization. The HR helps the employees within an organization to relate amicably with respect and cohesion. This serves the critical purpose of enhancing employees’ collaboration, cooperation, and sharing of resources, knowledge, and expertise in the organization (Paillé et al. 2014). To achieve the overall organization’s strategic objectives, the HR plans must coincide with them to add value to the functionality of the employees. In turn, projects to enhance the employees’ commitment and loyalty to the organization. Moreover, the organizational culture is built on the basis of an effective work environment. The role of the HR plans serves to outline the efficient conduct of the employees aimed at improving their relations. The existence of effective conflict resolution mechanism is a critical entity of the HR in providing a conducive work environment (Paillé et al. 2014). Consequently, project Clays Inc. as one of the best employers in the fast foods industry, an insight that is fundamental to raising the organization’s reputation and market positioning. Thus, advance its overall performance and competitiveness. 5.5. Employee Turnover Ozolina-Ozola (2014) highlights that the HR plans in an organization are fundamental towards the impact on low employee turnover enhancing consistency of the employees and the operations of the organization. This is critical to advance performance and effectiveness of the organization in the industry with a proficient workforce, skillful, and competent personalities. The consistency of the workforce enhances the understanding of the organization’s operations and the market. Clays Inc. operating in the fast food industry enjoys the competitive advantage of a competent and consistent workforce that is critical towards driving the organization’s innovativeness in the industry and competitiveness. The HR’s plans towards sustaining low employee turnover rates are ascertained through employee treatment and job satisfaction. The HR department in Clays Inc. is instrumental in designing programs and practices that ensure no employee turnover intentions, cohesive workforce, and strong commitments to the organization (Long, Perummal & Ajagbe 2012). The HR practices allow the building a strong organizational culture that asserts the significance of the employees towards the organization’s overall performance. Thus, allow the structuring of the HR practices to the best employee treatment, recognition, and value addition impacting on their satisfaction and commitment. 5.6. Training; Skills Acquisition and Expertise Development The training approach is a critical feature in Clays Inc. HR plans and its respective employee and overall organization’s performance. Singh Badhesha et al. (2008) presents that HR’s role in employee training “serves to improve the employee’s expertise and efficiency in executing their duties and mandates in an organization.” This is critical to ensure that the employees are adequately prepared and ready to execute their duties in the organization. An effective workforce in Clays Inc. is fundamental towards ascertaining customers’ satisfaction, frequent visits, and loyalty to the Clays Inc. brand. Thus, impact significantly on brand creation and gaining a profound market base with loyal customers. The HR plans applications in Clays Inc. plays a significant role in shaping their training needs. The training needs of the company determine the workforce deficits in skills and expertise capacity. In turn, the HR makes the relevant recommendations on the suitable programs that can help improve the employees’ competence, skills, and expertise capacity. Consequently, this serves the purpose of making it easier for the employees to execute their mandates with zeal and accuracy which complements the customer satisfaction and competitiveness of the company in the industry. Thus, serve to elevate Clays Inc. as a reputable company in the fast food industry allowing it to grow and expand spontaneously. Bezrukova, Jehn & Spell (2012) argues that the HR’s role in advancing training focuses on shaping employees’ attitudes towards diversity and respect on each other, the organizational culture, employee commitment, and impact on loyalty. The conduct of training as a recommendation and part of the HR plans induces essential professional development and employees’ effectiveness towards driving strategic plans in the organization. Thus, project the company as a major player in the industry and future competitiveness. Therefore, this asserts the significance of the HR plans and the delivery metrics that help shape the functionalities of the employees, their performance, and the overall performance of the organization. 6.0. Strategic Contribution The HR plans and deliverables can be evaluated on the basis of the aspects involved in the application of the HR practices in Clays Inc. The deliverables impact on improved employee performance, effectiveness, efficacy, and competitiveness. These are a critical impact that shapes the organization’s overall performance and determines their competitive advantage, market position, and future competitiveness. The HR plans focus on building the most effective and efficient workforce for the Clays Inc. which pose a significant challenge to other organizations in the industry. By inducing new HR trends, plans, and management, Clays Inc. is bound to assert itself as a market leader and poised to transform the industry more than it currently operates (Munjuri 2011). Thus, contributes to the functionalities of the industry and human resource capital utilization. The strategic contribution run by the HR plans in Clays Inc. focus on advancing job satisfaction, diversity management, work environment, employee relationships, and reduce employee turnover (Bezrukova, Jehn & Spell 2012). Also, the strategic contribution of the HR plans in Clays Inc. is fundamental in running of training programs impacting to skill acquisition, expertise, and competence of the employees in the organization. The strategic contribution of the HR plans in Clays Inc. is fundamental to elevating the organization’s functionalities as a unique company that values its employees. For example, the employment of persons with disability projects the company as unique in the industry a feature that facilitates the building of the company reputation and brand recognition. Thus, the platform lays down the foundation in which the HR achievements in Clays Inc. can be evaluated to determine the functional capacity of the organization. An effective workforce is essential to advance the company’s competitiveness in the industry. The collective HR plans drive the cohesiveness and commitment of the workforce towards common goals and objectives that impact on growth and competitiveness of the organization. As well, impact on building a reputable organizational culture that other companies in the industry seek to emulate and serve as the customer with diligence and eloquence. 7.0. Key Performance Measurements (KPM) Gabcanova (2012) asserts that the key performance measurements in the running of the HR department in an organization can be measured on the basis of performance duration, employees’ efficiency, workplace environment, among others. The HR plans in Clays Inc. are evaluated on the basis of the average time utilized in the recruitment of the employees and their absorption to the organization. This asserts the effectiveness of the HR plans in building a strong workforce from the word go and the organizational culture is bound to build. The recruitment and employee integration into the organization provides the foundation of the organizational culture which shapes the performance of the overall organization in the future. Thus, as a key performance measurement – recruitment and employee integration must be smooth, efficient, and through to assert the fundamental principles of the organizational culture. Also, training and skills development of the employees provide a key performance measure of the HR plans in Clays Inc. The functionalities of the HR plans identify the skills and competence deficit making recommendations on how to proceed Gabcanova (2012). In turn, this impacts on improving the organization’s performance and competitiveness in the industry. The HR plans must identify the training needs and the essential programs to meet those needs. Thus, prepare the employees sufficiently for future competitiveness. As well, the HR plans key performance measurement can be assessed through the average duration for the achievement of the set strategic goals and objectives for Clays Inc. This sets the baseline in which the HR’s inputs and contribution to the organization can be evaluated determining its significance and impact it creates. Thus, fast the realization of set goals and objectives asserts the effectiveness of the workforce. The effectiveness of the workforce is determined by the HR plans inputs and contribution to the functionalities and operations of the organization. Moreover, the rate of the workplace accidents, efficacy, and conduciveness provide another key performance measurement for the HR functionalities. The impact of the HR plans on Clays Inc. work environment conduciveness provides a fundamental baseline for the evaluation of the HR’s functionalities and impacts on management diversity, employee relationships, collaboration, and cooperation Gabcanova (2012). This is fundamental in shaping the overall performance of the organization. Thus, is a paramount feature for the HR to ensure the cooperation of the employees and their commitment to common goals and objectives. Furthermore, the employee retention and retaining talents comprises of key performance measurements for the HR’s application and functionalities in Clays Inc. The retention rate negates the rate of employee turnover asserting the significance of the HR plans in impacting the cohesive and committed workforce in the organization. The metric provides the baseline in which the effectiveness of the HR plans application in the operations of the organization can be evaluated to determine its importance and value addition. In turn, can reassure its support, termination, or change of track to ensure continuity and future business competitiveness. 8.0. Conclusion In conclusion, Clays Inc. takes the HR plans to be a fundamental feature in improving the employee functionality and performance. As well, this contributes to the overall organizational performance. The streamlining of the HR plans in Clays Inc. focus on advancing employees’ job satisfaction, work environment conduciveness, employee relationships, job and talent retention, and reduction of the employee turn. As well, HR plans are fundamental in employee training impacting on the improvement of skills acquisition, competence, and expertise. The application of the HR plans in Clays projects the company’s efforts in building a strong and reputable workforce. Consequently, the employee satisfaction is guaranteed which impact on the high performance of the company in the fast food industry, enhance service delivery, and customer retention. Thus, building the company customer base and loyalty. Furthermore, the HR plans impact significantly of diversity management which impacts on poising Clays Inc. as a business leader in the market. The reputation the company is bound to gain from equality and respect for all employees including persons with disabilities asserts the organization’s commitment to all its workforce. This presents Clays Inc. as one of the best employers as it continues its expansion and brand creation efforts. In turn, project the company as a leader to be emulated in the industry and positioning as a strong competitor. Therefore, HR practices are fundamental to ensure continuity and competitiveness of Clays Inc. in the fast food industry and its expansion strategy to various parts of the world.     References Al_Qudah, H. M. A., Osman, A., & Al_Qudah, H. M. (2014). The Effect of Human Resources Management Practices On Employee Performance. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 3(9), 129-134. Bezrukova, K., Jehn, K. A., & Spell, C. S. (2012). Reviewing diversity training: Where we have been and where we should go. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(2), 207-227. Bibi, A., Lanrong, Y., Haseeb, M., & Ahmad, I. (2012). The Effect of human resource management practices on employees’ job satisfaction on the universities of Pakistan. Business Management Dynamics, 1(12), 1-14. Gabcanova, I. (2012). Human resources key performance indicators. Journal of competitiveness, 4(1). Hassan, S. (2016). Impact of HRM Practices on Employee’s Performance. Int J Acad Res Account, Financ Manag Sci, 6, 15-22. Jouda, A. A., Ahmad, U. N. U., & Dahleez, K. A. (2016). The Impact of HRM Practices on Employees Performance: The Case of Islamic University of Gaza (IUG) in Palestine. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(4). Kundu, S. C., & Mor, A. (2016). Effect of Diversity Management on Employees Organisational Commitment: A Study of Indian Organisations. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 5(1). Long, C. S., Perumal, P., & Ajagbe, A. M. (2012). The impact of human resource management practices on employees’ turnover intention: A conceptual model. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(2), 629-641. Munjuri, M. G. (2011). The effect of human resource management practices in enhancing employee performance in Catholic institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(4), 189. Ozolina-Ozola, I. (2014). The impact of human resource management practices on employee turnover. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 156, 223-226. Paillé, P., Chen, Y., Boiral, O., & Jin, J. (2014). The impact of human resource management on environmental performance: An employee-level study. Journal of Business Ethics, 121(3), 451-466. Shaukat, H., Ashraf, N., & Ghafoor, S. (2015). Impact of human resource management practices on employees’ performance. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 23(2), 329-338. Singh Badhesha, R., Schmidtke, J. M., Cummings, A., & Moore, S. D. (2008). The effects of diversity training on specific and general attitudes toward diversity. Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, 2(2), 87-106.
July 6, 2018

Write a 800-1,000 word paper on the following topic: Compare and contrast financial and managerial accounting.

Title: Name: Institution:               The accord of financial accounting   is that it reports past results utilizing recorded cost accounting. Financial accounting   is in reverse looking and gives up choice importance for objectivity (Bromwich, 1988, p. 26). As per Accounting is characterized as “the accounting strategies included in making a related money record of business exchanges and in the planning of proclamations concerning the benefits, liabilities, and working consequences of business. When I imagine accountant, I want to see the squirrelly little FBI CPA in “the Untouchables,” the one that brought down Capone on expense avoidance. I see stereotyped, the short, hollering fellow with the virtuoso IQ, in glasses, “crunching” numbers on the calculator. The Financial accountant or CFO is the leader of the money office that runs every one of the reports, puts every one of the numbers in, deals with the advantages, liabilities, finance, and duties. The managerial accountant goes one stage past by utilizing the authentic information incorporated to settle on choices for the present and future course of the organization. Executive clerks are turning out to be increasingly helpful to organizations and their future. Managerial accountant s has numerous definitions, with a few exceptionally consistent attributes. Educator Michael Bromwich (1988) states that administration accounting   is “future-arranged, is powerful, creates forward-looking figures and is intended to be choice and control significant, ought not to be excessively worried about objectivity and is not for the most part subject to outer regulations” (p. 26). In a message from the seat, Larry White (2005) states that administration accounting is about building quality choice bolster, arranging, and control forms over the worth making operations inside associations. He trusts the without reliable inward procedures and administration; there is nothing for the capital markets to esteem or inspectors to check (p. 6). He facilitates states that inside an organization is a central spot in the economy where the manageable worth is made; like this, it ought to be a need center of the money related experts. Managerial accounting   is utilized by the Directorate to arrange, assess, control and guarantee responsibility. Bromwich scrutinizes the definition as it is, for the most part, worried with assembling and conveying data and accepts immovably that administration accounting   should be robust and forward-looking. To put the distinctions in context, budgetary accounting is authentic based, gathering data for generally outer clients where managerial auditing is all the more inside driven and structures suppositions given the money related accounting   realities. Managerial accounting isn’t about just arranging data yet rather breaking down it and after that utilizing it as a part of deciding. Furthermore, here is the distinction. Primary leadership, managerial accounting   is about using the data AND settling on choices given the examination of the information. They are a piece of the administration group and participate in management decisions that influence the eventual fate of the organization. In a past exchange, Bromwich cited as expressing that “management accounting   … ought not to be excessively worried about objectivity and is not subject to outer regulation.” Contrary to Bromwich convictions is the Institute of Management Accountants Standards of Ethical Conduct, which states four practices for all administration accountant s. The IMA holds Management accountants to the most astounding guidelines of moral behavior. The four benchmarks of moral behavior are Competence, Confidentiality, Integrity, and Objectivity. Capability. Managerial  accountant s have an obligation to keep up a proper level of expert fitness, perform their duties by laws, regulations, and specialized principles, and get ready reports and proposals after an investigation of pertinent and substantial data. In the eatery business administration is considered responsible for the unit’s stock, nourishment expenses, and work costs. It is imperative that the information gave precise and stable. Adulterating data to make the “numbers” look great can be negative to the operations of the unit. Classification. It is the administrator’s obligation to forgo revealing secret data, illuminating subordinate’s suitably on protection and to screen exercises to guarantee consistence. Classification understandings are a piece of the supervisor’s research material. Opinions about compensation, “mystery formulas” and methodology were marked and were relied upon never to be points of unmoving discussion. Trustworthiness. Managerial accountant has an obligation to evade irreconcilable circumstances and educate all gatherings on the potential clash. They should abstain from taking part in any movement that would preference their capacity to do their obligations morally and deny any blessing, support, or cordiality that would impact or seem to change their activities ( In extra, managerial accountant s Managerial Accounting must avoid undermining the accomplishment of the associations’ right blue and moral destinations perceive and convey proficient restrictions that would block dependable judgment or fruitful execution of movement. In conclusion, managerial accountant s must cease from taking part in any action that would be averse to the calling. Executive accountant s must impart negative and additionally active data and expert judgments or feelings. Amid my numerous years in the eatery business, we went from a period that it was alright to give cops a free dinner to nothing free. The impression of the free meal can be misconstrued as a “pay off” or “kick back” for additional insurance. This is additionally connected to firefighters, EMS team, and some other administration staff. Objectivity. The last standard of moral behavior is objectivity. Managerial accountant s must convey data decently and dispassionately, uncover all significant data that could impact comprehension of reports, remarks, and suggestions exhibited. At the point when the reports are taken a gander at dispassionately, and every quantitative that is accounted for; they will help the managerial accountant with the examination of the information in regular obligations. The managerial accountant can’t finish his/her employment without the information that the financial investigator is in charge of. In a few associations, this can be the same individual or for security and reviewing reasons the money related controller can be an outer gathering. Whichever way it is consolidated, both should be available in some structure or another to work for the best advantages of the organization. With the control of managerial accountant s immerging quickly, it got to be important to have moral principles set up to monitor the conduct and desires of conduct to the greatest advantage of the organization.           References   Bromwich, M. (1988, September). Managerial  Accounting Definition and extension from a managerial perspective. Financial  Management. 66(8), 26-27. Recovered on August 26, 2005, from   Kennedy, T., and Bull, R. (200). The considerable open deliberation. Administration Accounting, 78(5), p. 32-33. Recovered on August 28, 2005, from Proquest database.   Provincial Commerce and Growth Commission. Organization of Management   Accountant s. (2000, January 13). Measures of moral behavior. Recovered August 28, 2005, from   White, L. (2005). Propelling administration accounting  . Vital Finance, 86(12), 6-7. Recovered August 28, 2005from EBSCO database.
July 6, 2018

The legal framework to suppression threats that effect in securing peace and security in the maritime domain to by naval forces and maritime security centers – This dissertation is about threats in maritime domain ( piracy , armed robbery , Maritime terrorism ) – write requirements from our school do not impose formal writing for the dissertation , just they need title and subtitle for information’s by chapter razing. 1. Introduction 1.1. Background 1.2. Research topic 2. Maritime law ( piracy ,armed robbery, maritime terrorism) appearance and evolution legal rules (include the definitions ) 2.1. Harvard Draft convention on piracy of 1942 2.2. Convention on the high sea of 1958 3. Contemporary international law of the sea according piracy and armed robbery ( codification ) 3.1. UNCLOS 1982 ARTs 100-101-102-103-104-105-106-107-110-111( interpretation and analysis ) in parallel to human law and international humanitarian law . 3.1.1. SUA Convention 3.1.2. Hostage convention 3.2. Regional intergovernmental organization 3.2.1. ReCAAP and Information Fusion centre in Singapore 3.2.2. Djibouti code 3.3. International military response ( naval strategy and policy ) 3.3.1. 3.4. Non – governmental organization and industry 4. Study case gulf of Aden and Arabian sea (Horn of Africa) / security council resolutions 1846,1851,1897 / naval enforcement Mission operation in the Region 4.1. European Union Naval Force Operation Atlanta, NATO Operations, United States – led Combined Maritime Forces. 4.2. Coordination of nation and multinational Efforts to counter piracy 4.2.1. Contact group on piracy off the coast of Somalia 4.2.2. Shared awareness and deconflication ( SHADE) 4.2.3. Operation Atlanta maritime security centre – Horn of Africa 4.2.4. United Kingdom Maritime Trade organization Office( UKMTO) in Dubai and the maritime liaison office (MARLO) 5. Key gabs , Impunity gap and criticisms that effect the work of Naval forces and maritime security centres against this threats 5.1. Criminal repression of piracy and armed robbery at sea 5.1.1. Catch and release practices 5.1.2. Criminal prosecutions in seizing states and no – seizing victim states 5.1.3. Criminal prosecutions in regional states 5.2. Improving the internationals military response through changing the coordination 6. Maritime terrorism threats in our current days and relation with armed robbery 6.1. Rules of engagement (ROE) for the naval force and multinational forces according to maritime law and international conventions 7. Result and Analysis 8. Conclusion this ref very useful for writing 1. Maritime Piracy – Robert Haywood and Roberta Spivak 2. A Maritime Approach to Countering Horn of Africa Piracy – Ronald W . Toland 3. Small boats weak states dirty money piracy and maritime terrorism in the modern world – Martin N , Murphy 4. Contemporary piracy and maritime terrorism , the threats to international security – Martin N , Murphy 5. Violence at sea piracy in the age of global terrorism – peter lehr 6. Piracy and armed robbery at sea – robin geib and anna petrig 7. Piracy and maritime crime historical and modern case studies – bruce A . Ellerman . Andrew forbes , David Rosenberg editors 8. SUA convention 2006 edition 9. Maritime piracy and the construction of blobal governancy – edited by Michael j. struett , jon d . Carlson and mark t . Nance 10. Contemporary maritime piracy international law , strategy and diplomacy at sea – james krasaka OSCOLA REF STYLE

List of abbreviations ReCAAP – Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against ships EiS – Eyes in the Sky     Hostage Convention In the 19th century, the taking of hostages was an acceptable part of the war since it was an intent of punishment. However, in the 20th century, it was noted that the military went an extra mile of capturing civilian hostages as a way of strategizing their attacks. This was against article 34 of the Geneva Convention which prohibits the holding of civilians as hostages. Some of the countries policies were against holding of civilians as hostages. In the recent times holding of hostages has appeared to be a powerful weapon used by the terrorist in their acts of terrorism (McGinley, p. 691). Examples of hostage taking include; the murder and holding of Israelites athletes during the Munich Olympics in 1972, the detention of Jewish passengers who were hijacked while flying to Entebbe in 1976, the holding of 60 petroleum officials in Vienna in 1975, the holding of the American embassy staff in Tehran which was a prolonged detention that occurred between 1979-1981, the attack on the Iranian embassy that took place in 1980 in London that saw many people being held as hostages, there have also been hostage taking of civilians in Lebanon that occurred in the 80’s. Due to this amount of inhumanity taking place across the world, the United Nations general assembly was requested to consider the formation of a convention that would ensure international action taken against those found tolerating hostage taking. The assembly in its acceptance adopted a resolution which saw an establishment of a committee which contained 35 member countries that oversaw the drafting of international law against hostage takings (Roberts, p. 593). The proper legal systems of the world were considered in the formulation of the laws. In the measure of strengthening this law, the assembly adopted the principles of protection of all persons who are under any form of imprisonment. This is because the hostage takers knew that through the controlling of hostages, there were able to extort any demand they have from powerful states. Terrorists used the hostage taking as a form of leverage where they could seek for any claims they have either publicly or through the utilization of any other means to create a tensed environment where the government could give in easily (Lowenfeld, p. 887). Through this practice, the hostages who are innocent people that do not have any connections with the terrorists are deprived of their rights and the internal security of the country is disrupted. Obligations Any attempt made by a group of people or association to threaten to kill, any direct involvement of seizing or unlawful holding of people in order to issue conditions that will ensure the respective government will meet to their demands in exchange for the hostages is an offense, and the state is required to punish this offense through appropriate channels of the law. States are required to provide all measures necessary that will ease up the situation of hostages in a situation the hostages are not its citizens. It is the duty of that state to ensure the hostages are released and their departure is well facilitated. All states are required to take such steps which are a way of establishing the jurisdiction of hostage taking. In the case of compliance and enforcement, all party states are needed to take the necessary steps to ensure the offenders have been well punishing by the convention itself. The offenders are to be taken into custody so that they can be prosecuted under the presented criminal proceedings (Roberts, p. 593). In the event, there is a dispute of application of the convention by the party states, and the arguments have taken a long time to be resolved, then the case should be handed over to the international criminal court. Regional Intergovernmental Organization There has been regional cooperation in the areas that are most affected by the piracy which is the Horn of Africa. Regardless of different activities in these areas, they are lessons to be borrowed which can be well applied in the Gulf of Guinea. There are two organizations which have been in the forefront of ensuring there are peace in the maritime world. These organizations are United Nations and the international maritime organization. Through the IMO code of law in the thorough scrutiny of crimes on ships has led to increased development of cooperation and agreements with other stakeholders so that they can apply effective and efficient strategies that provide depression of piracy on ships (Thakur, et al, p. 236). The United Nations General Assembly has applauded the progress of regional cooperation in Asia where they introduced a framework of Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against ships (ReCAAP). It has also urged other states to prioritize the issue of implementation of cooperation agreements in the regions that are highly volatile. The IMO has been calling for regional collaboration and most of the states have heeded to the plea and signed to agreements authorizing IMO for immediate and active participation in the protection of the seas and oceans against the piracy. There has also been the introduction of different countermeasures that have been set up to fight piracy and ReCAAP is one of the measures that has been successful since its inception. Different nations have come up with their measures of combating the piracy menace where they came up with their agreements that will ensure peace and safety have prevailed in their waters (Shannon, p. 153). There were different strategic agreements that came up to ensure the waters were protected from both on the ground level and in the air where Eyes in the Sky (EIS) initiative was introduced to bring maritime awareness while the water patrols were to protect the waters physically. Through these measures there was a significant drop in pirate attacks due to stronger ties between countries. ReCAAP and Information Fusion Centre in Singapore Through the inception of ReCAAP, there has been regional integration where there is proper coordination of responses. ReCAAP is the pioneer of regional government agreements where it has been able to contract out its services to other states. These countries include china, Netherlands, Japan, Philippines, Cambodia, Thailand, Brunei and United Kingdom. Due to this agreement made by the contracting states, it led to the introduction of information fusion Centre in Singapore (Ho, p.622). Through this network, a framework of cooperation is established among the participants where three aspects are given priority; teamwork building, information sharing, and cooperation. Features of ReCAAP The agreement tends to follow the verbatim definition of piracy in UNCLOS Article 101 and the Annex to Resolution A.922 (22) of the IMO. This is under the consideration of locational issues and the definitions. The agreement also tends to conform to the general obligations where all member and contracting parties are responsible and required to undertake any measures effectively in relation to both international and national laws in order to suppress armed robbery against ships, prevent the occurrence of piracy, seizing the ships under the custody of the pirates and rescuing the hostages. The establishment of the information fusion Centre being one of the pillars of the agreement, has representatives of all member states whose role is to ensure there is enhanced communication and prompt alert of occurrence of incidents where the information is shared with all countries so that there can be quick reaction to the armed robbery in the maritime. Another feature of the ReCAAP is that there is adequate funding of the fusion Centre from the founding states and any other contributions from the contracting states where it will ensure there is continuity of operations to achieve the mandate created by the agreement. Without proper funding, there might be delays or slow response in the event of emergencies making the situation undesirable by all states. Lessons from ReCAAP There should be a designated focal point where each member state together with the contracting parties will have a central place of receiving and transmitting information to and from the data fusion Centre. This is one of the strengths that the ReCAAP associates itself with, and it ensures there is proper flow of information. In the event of a country having numerous agency that deals with piracy and robbery of ships, then a single agent should be recommended so that it avoids duplication of work (Bueger, p.103). Another lesson learned from ReCAAP is the presence of capacity building where the host states in conjunction with the contracting states join efforts together to provide the best practices such as training and technical guidance. There is also better pooling of resources where the less fortunate states will achieve the same objective of suppressing the armed robbery and piracy through sharing of practices and experiences. Piracy being an international threat, it affects all countries and stakeholders that have interests in the affected states. Therefore through ReCAAP, other states can learn about cooperative arrangements where they will create a conducive environment that will ensure the fight against piracy has been given priority, and it will also be easier to receive assistance from other multinational organizations who have the same ambitions of suppressing piracy. Challenges of ReCAAP Since this regional agreement involves many nations coming together, there are bound to be challenges facing the execution of its mandate. To start with, Indonesia and Malaysia are not part of this agreement which is the biggest problem that ReCAAP faces all time because most of the attacks occur in these countries (Simon, p. 33). Therefore ReCAAP has the most significant responsibility of working with the relevant maritime authorities to ensure that it suppresses the piracy activities. Another challenge that ReCAAP faces is the delay of receiving reports and information from the various focal points, which is a huge setback that could make the operations ineffective. To get rid of this challenge, most of the ships are required to directly report to the fusion Centre to improve on the facilitation of information and quick response to incidents. Another enormous challenge that ReCAAP faces is the fact that the organization is underfunded. Whereby half of the members do not contribute towards the teams’ kit to ensure it does not become inactive. This is an unhealthy situation because most ReCAAP will not be able to offer any support if it does not have the necessary push and motive to do so. Djibouti code This is another organization in the forefront of combating piracy in the Indian Ocean. This code was signed into a treaty in January 2009 through the representatives of Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Maldives, Ethiopia, Seychelles, Tanzania, Madagascar and Yemen. With time there was an increase in the member state to 19. Moreover, there was formation of international bodies to join the fight against piracy which was a response to the threats of shipping companies in the Horn of Africa (Chatterjee, p.57). More task force was formed in the fight against piracy as the United Nations Security Council gave authorization to states to utilize necessary actions of repressing acts of piracy by the international law. Features of Djibouti code To effectively fight the war on piracy, the code incorporates both the IMO and UNCLOS definitions of piracy. The measures of suppressing the piracy activities are contained in Paragraph 7 of Annex 4 which states that participant carrying out a seizure should be subjected to his or her national laws with proper consultation with other stakeholders (Nanda, p.117). Any seizure that has been made in the territories of the participant should be put under the jurisdiction of the member. This, therefore, means members should not go after a ship in the territories of another state without obtaining permission of the respective state. Hence respect of the territorial state prevails. The code has a special feature that ReCAAP does not have in its agreement which is known as embarked officers. This is a situation where armed officers of another state are allowed to engage in the patrol ships of other another state in the fight against piracy only if they have been requested by the host country. With this kind of provision, there is room for adjudicative jurisdiction by courts of the embarked officers. It also has a similar feature with that of ReCAAP where there is the presence of a focal point that ensures there is proper coordination of reports and smooth, efficient communication between the member states. The code although makes provisions for three information centers which are Yemen, Tanzania, and Kenya. Achievements of Djibouti code The system has been seen tremendous growth of development especially in the improvement of area operations whereby some of the member states have made amendments to their laws to meet the international standards thus showing a sign of improvement in suppressing piracy (Wambua, p.53). There is also inter agency development where the different task forces in the territorial waters have joined efforts in the fight against piracy thus resulting in more arrests of criminals to ensure there is peace in the waters. There has also been establishment of trust fund, where the member state together with other stakeholders have been able to contribute towards the process of repressing piracy on ships in order to ensure that the commitment of the member states does not go into waste due to inadequate funds for allocation of resources in the fight against piracy. The code has also helped in the creation of standard procedures which has ensured there is the proper exchange of information thus showing a significant collaboration between the Asian countries and Africa thus enhancing an anti-piracy deal. Challenges of Djibouti code Due to having different focal points for response purposes, there is a problem of security cooperation in the states due to lack of consensus. ReCAAP has one focal point information Centre which makes it very easy for the transmission of information to another member state unlike the Djibouti code that has 3 Centre’s making it be potentially cumbersome to rely upon information (Wilson, p. 15). The greatest challenge the code is facing is the exclusion of two major states that are India and Pakistan. Since the piracy fight is hugely concentrated in Africa, the two countries could have helped in capacity building program and provision of leadership skills in the fight against piracy.     International military response (naval strategy and policy) In today’s environment, globalization is one of the major characteristics that has impacted hugely on the human activities. This is because information and people tend to flow across the borders at a very alarming rate which is suitable for both economic and social development. However, this leads to increased competition for resources, political and social tensions all over the country. Technology is another impact that has enabled globalization to prosper in the sense that people can create new content and spread it across the world at a faster rate than before. Criminal gangs tend to rely on these technological advancements where they can conduct their illegal activities without being traced. In spite of these changes, most of the countries are thrive hard to ensure they provide peace and safety to its people through the use of any means possible under the international systems (Homan, p.86). States have also partnered with other powerful countries that have advanced security details that can combat with the criminal gangs without pressure to maintain law and order. Piracy becomes an internationally recognized security problem, where international community had to come up with counter measures that will ensure the piracy activity is completely wiped off. There were provisions passed by the United Nations Security Council which allows for the active participation of the naval forces in the territorial waters of pirate infested countries. The resolutions gave the global military power to respond to any piracy activity taking place on the territorial waters to suppress the acts of armed robbery against the ships (Cassese, p.596). Through these resolutions, there were indications of increased security in the volatile areas and significant steps towards combating the acts of piracy by the international military. Due to the legal uncertainties about piracy, most of the countries are not ready to prosecute pirates due to the difficulties of proving the acts of piracy. However, the occurrence of incidents where pirates were held by the international naval forces was released because there was no country willing to prosecute them in their courts (Strydom, p.759). This led to the European Union coming to agreements with Kenya and countries neighboring Somalia that will see prosecution of pirates that have been held by the naval forces in the respective country. There are various strategies that have been employed by the international military in response to fighting piracy. The military tends to deny, deter and defeat the enemies of the states. Under all circumstances, the military is ready to use any means possible that will ensure any direct attack has been deterred. Denying the enemies their goals of attacking will be the priority where the highly motivated forces are given the mandate of bringing back the normalcy of activities. Through strong communication, powerful intelligence and resilient infrastructure the international military response is highly dependable because they have the necessary expertise that is required in combating the piracy acts. Non- governmental organization and industry Piracy is a huge setback for development where most of the acts have led to the death of influential minds that were useful in the building of the society to ensure that there are growth and development in the nations. Due to this criminal activities, there were several multinational organizations that were established to help in the formulation of anti-piracy policies. This is because the most affected people due to piracy is the business community whose long-life investments are to detained by wrong people who are after satisfying their own needs. This non-governmental organization role was to ensure that sound policies are made so that the piracy menace can be dealt with accordingly (Travalio, p.145). They also ensured they collaborated with other government agencies such as the international maritime organization to ensure there is the effectiveness of operations to achieve the joint goal of piracy eradication. Additionally, shipping industries have also incorporated various measures to counter attack the piracy attacks since they are a most targeted object. Shipping industries have now taken precautions that will ensure there is the prosperity of the business and that consumers will not look for alternative methods due to fear of insecurity. The advancements made by the shipping industry to ensure there are precautions are involvement of marine soldiers that will escort the vessel through the waters for security purposes (White, p.731). Some of the ships have been fenced with barbed wire to stop the pirates from boarding the ship. The most important precaution undertaken by both the non-governmental and industries is being highly alerted and on the lookout to avoid any occurrence of attacks without any leads. Through the involvement of non-governmental organizations and shipping industry in the fight against piracy, there has been a significant reduction of piracy cases where all stakeholders have been able to come together to ensure there is calmness in the territorial waters due to the high guarantee of security. The non-governmental organizations have been able to advocate for the formulation of strict measures and policy that will ensure piracy is completely wiped off. Case study Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea (Horn of Africa) Piracy being a major security challenge in the horn of Africa, it has impacted negatively on the gulf cooperation council (GCC) countries. This is because the horn of Africa is the main route of oil products as they sail towards Europe. Piracy has threatened the transportation of oil through the oil tankers where the pirates have come up with advance technological ways of identifying and tracking down of the ships to detain the ships for ransom purposes. This has led to the decline of both economic and security status of GCC nations because the majority of the attacked ships were owned and managed by them (Laughton, p.162). The pirates have been working on intelligence networking where they were able to monitor the movement of ships, and through their agents, they were able to set up tracks and ultimately hostage taking. The international community was forced to acknowledge the magnitude of the threat of piracy and the diverse effects it has both regionally and internationally. This, therefore, led to the United Nations Security Council invoking some of the laws and new resolutions were passed that ensured all states could use the necessary action to deal with piracy as they encourage increased patrolling on both the offshore and onshore. (Onuoha, p.39) Security Council resolutions Due to the failure of prosecuting the pirates, it led to the strengthening of piracy since they knew no action was being taken against them and thus undermining the anti-piracy war that was being fought by many nations. In this regard, the Security Council recalled all member state and ensured piracy has been criminalizing in respect to the domestic laws (Rosand, p.338). The adaptation of the resolutions saw many nations happy about the progress for they knew that their efforts in suppressing the piracy had been uplifted and they can prosecute and imprison all pirates apprehended at the coast. These resolutions were upheld by many since they knew the effect piracy had in matters relating to security and economy. This showed that the international community was ready in its all capacity to eliminate piracy. Naval enforcement mission operation The Navy has been very crucial in the process of peace keeping in the territorial waters. It is through their determination and hard work that they have been able to reduce if not eradicate the piracy attacks in the region. In this regard, the navy has overall objective is to ensure there is maritime security where they maintain peace and safety in the territorial waters (Schmidl, p.14). In this aspect, the navy has been able to come up with security based plans for vessel protection whereby they ensure that the vessels have full compliance with the maritime security to guarantee maximum safety for both the ship and the staff.     References Amri, Ahmad. “Combating maritime piracy in Southeast Asia from international and regional legal perspectives: challenges and prospects.” (2013): 442. Bahar, Michael. “Attaining optimal deterrence at sea: A legal and strategic theory for naval anti-piracy operations.” Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 40 (2007): 1. Bueger, Christian. “Responses to contemporary piracy: disentangling the organizational field.” Modern piracy: Legal challenges and responses (2013): 91-114. Cassese, Antonio. “The International Community’s” Legal” Response to Terrorism.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly (1989): 589-608. Chatterjee, Syamal Kumar. “Djibouti Code of International Arbitration, The.” J. Int’l Arb. 4 (1987): 57. Derains, Yves. “REPUBLIC OF DJIBOUTI: CODE OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION.” International Legal Materials 25.1 (1986): 1-16. Guilfoyle, Douglas. “The laws of war and the fight against Somali piracy: combatants or criminals.” Melb. J. Int’l L. 11 (2010): 141. Ho, Joshua. “Combating piracy and armed robbery in Asia: Boosting ReCAAPs role.” Freedom of Seas, Passage Rights and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention. Brill, 2008. (pp. 619-624) Ho, Joshua. “Combating piracy and armed robbery in Asia: the ReCAAP Information Sharing Centre (ISC).” Marine Policy 33.2 (2009): 432-434. Homan, Kees, and Susanne Kamerling. “Operational challenges to counterpiracy operations off the coast of Somalia.” The International Response to Somali Piracy. Brill, 2010. 65-104. Hribernik, Miha. “Countering Maritime Piracy and Robbery in Southeast Asia: The Role of the ReCAAP Agreement.” (2013). Kastenmeier, Robert W., and David Beier. “International Trade and Intellectual Property: Promise, Risks, and Reality.” Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 22 (1989): 285. Laughton, A. S. “The Gulf of Aden.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences (1966): 150-171. Lowenfeld, Andreas F. “US law enforcement abroad: The constitution and international law.” American Journal of International Law 83.4 (1989): 880-893. McGinley, Gerald P. “The Achille Lauro Affair-Implications for International Law.” Tenn. L. Rev. 52 (1984): 691. Nanda, Ved P. “Maritime Piracy: How Can International Law and Policy Address this Growing Global Menace.” Denv. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y 39 (2010): 177. Nowrot, Karsten. “Legal consequences of globalization: The status of non-governmental organizations under international law.” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies (1999): 579-645. Onuoha, Freedom. “Sea piracy and maritime security in the Horn of Africa: The Somali coast and Gulf of Aden in perspective.” African Security Studies 18.3 (2009): 31-44. Roberts, Lawrence D. “United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 and its Aftermath: The Implications for Domestic Authority and the Need for Legitimacy.” NYUJ Int’l L. & Pol. 25 (1992): 593. Rosand, Eric. “Security council resolution 1373, the counter-terrorism committee, and the fight against terrorism.” American Journal of International Law 97.2 (2003): 333-341. Schmidl, Erwin A. “The evolution of peace operations from the nineteenth century.” Small Wars & Insurgencies 10.2 (1999): 4-20. Shannon, Megan. “Preventing war and providing the peace? International organizations and the management of territorial disputes.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 26.2 (2009): 144-163. Simon, Sheldon W. “Safety and security in the Malacca straits: the limits of collaboration.” Asian Security 7.1 (2011): 27-43. Strydom, Hennie. “Some national and regional responses to maritime piracy.” Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011.4 (2011): 762-772. Thakur, Ramesh, and Luk Van Langenhove. “Enhancing global governance through regional integration.” Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 12.3 (2006): 233-240. Travalio, Gregory M. “Terrorism, international law, and the use of military force.” Wis. Int’l LJ 18 (2000): 145. Wambua, Paul Musili. “Enhancing regional maritime cooperation in Africa: The planned end state.” African Security Studies 18.3 (2009): 45-59. Wambua, Paul Musili. “Legal frameworks for maritime safety and security in the Indian Ocean Region: Prospects and proposals.” Maritime Affairs: Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India 12.2 (2016): 71-77. Wambua, Paul Musili. “The jurisdictional challenges to the prosecution of piracy cases in Kenya: mixed fortunes for a perfect model in the global war against piracy.” WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs 11.1 (2012): 95-113. White, G. Edward. “The Marshall Court and International Law: The Piracy Cases.” American Journal of International Law 83.4 (1989): 727-735. Wilson, Brian. “Effectively confronting a regional threat: Somali piracy.” Conflict trends 2009.1 (2009): 11-18.  
July 6, 2018

Listen to Dance of the Reed Flutes-From The Nutcracker, and describe the various features that you hear. Describe the excerpt: -What is the overall mood of the excerpt? -How would you describe the features of rhythm/meter and tempo? use of dynamics? -How would you describe the use of harmony in the music, including consonance and dissonance and harmonic progression? -What is the predominant texture of the excerpt, and what instrument(s) carry the main melodic idea(s)? -Identify the instruments in the excerpt and describe the tone colors that you hear. -Describe the features that you found most challenging to describe, and those that were easiest to describe.

Dance of the Reed Flutes Name Course title and number Professor’s name Date Dance of the Reed Flutes This dance evokes light, joyful, playful and featuring pizzicato strings and featuring flutes in the dance. The signature dubstep violin style and dance moves in the music bring the joyful music video and also the strings tuned to the joyful sounds of the music (Komaroy 135-144). Tchaikovsky has shown a forceful side of knowing how to create excitement and has also built thrilling ending. The dance starts with a loud march-like music that has a full orchestra, violins, homophonic and repeating polyphonic that changes the melody to woodwinds that brings a fast dance tempo with the strings being pulled back. Then follows the full orchestra with the dance theme with march theme comes back with strings. Flutes and dancing fairies with the low pizzicato strings begin the dance, then staccato melody follows, and then the trumpets come in, a light music begins and then cadence.  The dance then follows with a collection of inspired movements that have been written for solo instruments with all the movements written with the same key. (Komaroy 139-143).  The chord progression in the dance has joyful and inclusive mood in the music. The lyrics and melodies are harmonious with a homophonic and full orchestra that change the melody of the dance with the strings pulling back giving a harmonious progress in the dance with inspiration moves in the dance. The Nutcracker ballet music shifts along many key features of instruments that include an exchange between violins and flutes that are accompanied by pizzicato strings that are plucked with fingers rather than being plucked using a bow (Komaroy 138-142). Trumpets are also used and lead to a new melody with nice textures and colors that have been appreciated for visual and imaginative dance. It’s a bit challenging to describe the rhythm and harmonic progression of the dance, but at the same, it’s easy to describe the mood and instruments used in the dance.     References Komarov, Alexander. “Tchaikovsky’s Legacy to the World.” Museum International 65.1-4 (2013): 135-144.  
July 6, 2018

As the third and final semester of my Masters of Law (LLM) study is entirely devoted to researching and writing my dissertation which accounts for a third of the total points required to complete the LLM degree programme, this reflective log is a summary of my experience(s) in researching and writing the dissertation. Prior to the start of my dissertation, I was required to choose a topic on any area of law that I considered interesting, and to come up with a research proposal which I had to discuss with, and then submit to my allotted supervisor for approval. After very careful consideration, I then decided that my dissertation was doing to be in the area of Company Law for the reason that my chosen LLM degree specialism was in Commercial and Maritime Law. I thus decided that I was going to be writing about the Companies Act 2006, a part of which codified the duties of company directors. My dissertation was going to be based specifically on the duty contained in the s. 172 of the Companies Act 2006, which required “that a director of a company must act in a way he considers in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole, and that in doing so have regard (amongst others) to a non-exhaustive list of factors contained in the Act”. The aim of my dissertation would be to critically review this particular duty with the aim of deciding whether the codification of this duty was an improvement on its common law predecessor, if and whether the courts will have problems interpreting this particular duty, and whether there could really be a situation where the duty could be said to have been breached, and whether if in the event of a breach of this duty, whether the victim(s) of the said breach could have recourse to any form of redress, and whether the time is now right for parliament to intervene in order to provide some kind of answer(s) to the various criticisms of this duty. Prior to my first meeting with my supervisor, I must admit that I was really unsure of what to expect from the meeting. But having now had time to reflect on that first meeting with my supervisor where I presented my research proposal, I now with the benefit of hindsight, admit, that the meeting was indeed a very revealing and rewarding one. Her questions and/or comments were very incisive and insightful. She gave me very useful tips on how to organise my work, and was very particular on the need to avoid writing a very descriptive essay but to identify or state clearly what it was about the s. 172 duty of the director that I wanted to discuss and get on with the critical analysis thereof. As it was a dissertation essay, she was of the opinion that I should never shy away from stating my own opinion based on the analysis that I had made. The sources of my research for the dissertation was based principally on primary law, case law and academic opinion. The toughest part of writing this dissertation was assembling the relevant articles. As there has been so much written about the s. 172 duty of the director. This therefore presented the extra challenge of having to research and to read from a wide range of materials from several authors which as would be expected, have expressed varying opinions regarding the effectiveness, interpretation and enforcement of the duty, and above all whether the so called Enlightened Shareholder Objective which parliament intended when it enacted the act, could be said to have been achieved. It was therefore very very important that notwithstanding the wide availability of materials on the topic, I had the more difficult job of ensuring that my work remained original. To this end, it was my biggest challenge to make sure that I understood the analysis made by the various authors and accordingly be able to agree or disagree with their position based on my own critical analysis. The dissertation, was my real opportunity to engage in the debate in this area of law that I have always liked and enjoyed. The whole dissertation experience has helped me to engage intellectually in this very topical debate, and has also enabled me to gain a deeper understanding of the whole idea of what a company is as a legal entity, and the shareholder versus the stakeholder concept and the legal debate surrounding these concepts. Furthermore, the dissertation has enabled me to better understand through my study of the reports of the various committees, public hearings and white papers leading up to the enactment of the Companies Act 2006, what parliament meant by the concept of the Enlightened Shareholder, and how it had intended to achieve this objective by subsequently enacting the said directors’ duties. I might also add that the dissertation has helped me to understand to some extent from a practical perspective the process of law making. Writing the dissertation itself was not without its own difficulties and challenges. Whilst I had done plenty of course works before, all of which entailed a great degree of wide reading and analysis during my LLB degree and the LLM degree as well, the share volume of reading required and the word count for the LLM dissertation was the most daunting challenge. There was always the fear of how to achieve that 15,000 words limit without being overly descriptive and repetitive. To this end it is my humble suggestion that the School of Law might consider reducing the words count from the present 15,000 to say 12,000. This is because as the most words written in all the course works in the LLM was 2,500, a jump to 15,000 words would seem quite a big ask. Howbeit, the whole dissertation experience whilst challenging has been a very rewarding one and I have thoroughly enjoyed it.

Name Professor’s Name Course Title and Number Date “LLM in Commercial and Maritime law.” Acquisition of a Masters in Law (LLM) requires that one undertakes research and writes a dissertation related to a particular topic in the area of study. The research is vital in that it is part of the points that are required for completion of the programme. The following is an analysis of the experience that I had when undertaking the research and developing the dissertation. Before commencing the dissertation, it was to select a topic that was of interest to me within the subject of study. I derived my research proposal that was to be a directive towards the actual research process that I was supposed to undertake. I had four meetings with my supervisor who I was allocated to guide me through my research project. I went to him with my proposal at the first meeting, and there was an in-depth discussion relating to the topic that I had selected. After a careful assessment with my project supervisor, I settled on the theme that I had selected which was “Legal Framework to eliminating Threats in Peace and Security in the Maritime Sector.” I was to cover Naval Forces and Maritime Security Center in my study, and this was an area that I always wanted to analyze. I had noted that the maritime industry has always been faced with many limitations concerning pirate attacks and I was curious to find out the measures that have been taken to deal with this menace. The Doctor was in support of the theme that I had selected and it was for me to go ahead and undertake the actual study. I was very enthusiastic since it was an opportunity that often comes once and is quite engaging hence enables one to generate a lot of insights. During the analysis of my research proposal, my supervisor helped me a lot in defining and limiting the problem of the study in my dissertation. I had always thought that the statement and problem of the study were the same, but I later found out that these were different segments in any project work. The supervisor also advised me regarding expanding the subject and highlighted that at no time should I expand it since it would increase the scope of the researcher. Such a case would make my dissertation wider leading me to cover extra details that were not necessary. I had to stick to the objectives that I had developed for my dissertation. It was clear that I had to concentrate on the main points of the study and ensure that I went in depth so that I could get precise details that covered the area of study. Formatting my research paper was one of the challenges that I had and specifically using footnotes. I was using the Chicago format in my research project and did not know much about applying footnotes as a way of referencing my work. My supervisor taught me a lot concerning the steps that I would follow to reference my work, and it went a long way in making my paper formatting skills excellent when using this referencing style. I can confess that I have always had issues to do with my writing style and here I had a task that was essential towards my academic success. I was versed with the fact that a low grade in the research project would mean that I would not achieve the milestones and objectives that I had set on the ground. However, my supervisor came to my need and ensured that I had all the tips needed. I was taught more about grammar and avoiding some of the simple mistakes that are evident in project work. Notably, I got a chance to learn tips about sentence construction and to avoid the use of the first pronoun. I had initially thought that I could comfortably use the first person pronoun in any academic work which was not the case. When developing my work, my supervisor taught me about applying case studies. Excellent dissertations are those that make use of case studies as I learned and I made sure that I incorporated them. However, it was quite hectic finding articles that would provide the necessary case studies that I would use in my dissertation. The articles that I came up across were from different authors, and I was required to read each one of them. Each author had a different approach towards the topic at hand, and I was left wondering how I was to accommodate all these in my work. I often wondered how one could make use of his or her opinion in any dissertation because the utilization of the first person pronoun is not allowed. I put this question to my supervisor, and he assured me that it was recommendable to have these under the analysis and conclusion segments. However, I was made to understand that there is no utilization of first-person pronouns whatsoever. My opinions and what I had found out from the research study was to be covered under the analysis and conclusion parts as stated by the supervisor. The dissertation was to compose a total of approximately 15,000 words which was a requirement that everyone was to adhere to. Before is started it, I often asked myself how it was possible to achieve the word count without having cases of repetition and descriptive instances. At the end of the research analysis, I found out that my dissertation was more than what was required when it came to word count. Extra words or even less was not to be allowed and therefore, my supervisor informed me that I had to cut some of the parts so that I could meet the word count. It was the hardest part in the development of the dissertation since I found myself wondering which part did not make much sense. At some point, I eliminate a segment that was highly vital, and I had to rewrite it again. In as much as there were many challenges, it was an opportunity to learn various insights that are related to maritime law. The research exposed to one of the global debates that have been generated over time and the development that has taken place in maritime security. The process of developing policies that cater for security laws is a complex one especially when there is no support from stakeholders as I found out. What I found out is that there is more to be done so that all efforts can get integrated towards addressing the different limitations that are evident in the maritime section.
July 6, 2018

Introduction to Philosophy Paper #1 Topics Please answer one of the following questions, using the APA or MLA format. Please include the word count (975 – 1000 words), your name, the class & section number in the header. Use proper citation. You will be graded on how well you read, understand and respond to the reading. This means you will need to be very accurate telling me what the philosophers thought. 60% Content: (1) a clear and concise thesis, (2) answer every part of the question, (3) support your claims with facts or quotes 40% Technical: (4) active writing, (5) good grammar, (6) formatting for publishing. Questions: Martin Heidegger: According to Heidegger, the question “Why are there things rather than nothing” is the first principle of a first philosophy that is deep, wide and profound. What does this statement mean? Do you agree or disagree? Give examples. Does the idea need any updates? Heidegger says that the Metaphysics seeks to develop and clarify the meaning of Do you agree or disagree? Does the idea need updates? To answer this question, you will need to define and discuss the meaning of the word Dasein. Plato: According to Thrasymachus Justice is “is nothing other than the advantage of the stronger [or ruler]. In each city, the [ruler] makes laws to its own advantage.” What does this theory mean and entail? Why does Socrates reject this idea? Who do you think is right? Any updates needed to the theories. According to Adeimantus, people are inherently bad and would do injustice given the chance. Moreover, the only reason why anyone does any good is because of the rewards. No is good for its own sake. How does the Ring of Gyges or the Unfortunate Man demonstrate this idea? Do you agree or disagree? Please explain why. What is the role of education for people and their societies? Tell me what Socrates said and how he applied that idea to the Republic. Next, tell me if you think this idea is true today. What has changed? Socrates uses the Divided Line to show us to different ways of “seeing”: the sensible (aesthetic) and the intellectual (noetic) way. Please describe the line and tell me what the line shows. Please use a diagram to explain. Do you think the Divided Line is true or not? Explain why Socrates says that the unenlightened live like prisoners in a cave. Tell me what this means and whether you agree or disagree with him. If these people are in the dark, what are enlightened people like? Aristotle: 1) Story 1: Theseus has a boat called “The Real Boat”. He replaces a part every day. His neighbor Minos starts building a boat using Theseus’s discards. After two years Theseus has completely replaced all the parts and Minos finishes his boat and names it “The Real Boat”. Which boat is the Real Boat? What would Aristotle say and why? 2) Kilgore kills a man when he was 18. He gets arrested 60 years later. His lawyer says “You must find this man innocent. The man who killed no longer exists. The molecules, memories, and personality are completely different.” What would Aristotle think about this argument. Would he find Kilgore guilty? 3) Is there life after death? Suppose Aristotle found himself in the Walking Dead Universe, what would he say about the zombies. Also, does he think they are dead or alive? Does he think one can really survive death?

Philosophy   Name   Course title and number Professor’s name Date     Why are there things rather than nothing According to Martin Heidegger, the question is used to show that there is a misunderstanding of being. The question seems meaningless while it is used to make the people think that God is the only source of everything. He says that we have taken for granted the responsibility of God and seen that he also fails which therefore has made us be puzzled by the question. The question implies that there could have been nothing because the question is asking why he isn’t just nothing. We can’t see that beings can also be defined as things and therefore a being is not a being which allows them to exist. The philosopher makes use of the question to bring an understanding of the is-ness that comes from nothing. He has denied that God is the answer and therefore said that being cannot be considered as God. He answers the question by explaining making them think that the answer is God for it to make sense. This idea has been used a trick of words which contradicts itself. The concept of Daisen This is because the word means being there. Daisen has been projected into engagement with a never-ending personal world involvement through the mediation of the word itself.  Heidegger used the concept of Daisen as a stepping stone to clarify what it means to have a being, owns death and truth.  Heidegger also saw the question of daisen extending beyond the disclosed realms in the history of metaphysics. Daisen has been used to refer to the experience of human beings that are particular to beings. The main interest in the concept of daisen is to raise the issue of being and to make sense of things in the sense of our capacity. Daisen, therefore, is an entity whereby through its very being, it comforts itself through an understanding which I am. The philosophy of justice According to Thrasymachus, justice is considered as the advantage of the stronger.  The strengths of this theory lie Ring of Gyes According to the ring of Gyes, they say that doing justice is an aspect of nature, good, to suffer injustice and evil. When men have experienced both whereby they have been unable to avoid one and obtain the other, they opt to have neither. This, therefore, affirms the origin of the nature of justice. The idea of practicing justice is done involuntary because the individual has no power to be unjust. When they are given both powers to be just and unjust, it is discovered that their desire will lead to either of them. Gyes was a shepherd who was serving the king of Lydia. One day there was a great storm and earthquake that caused an opening where he was able to see a statue of a dead human having a gold ring which he took from the dead man’s finger. This ring helped him to seduce the queen where he conspired against the king and took the kingdom. With The Republic The Plato’s Republic is known for its philosophical educational and powerful defensive justice. Plato’s beliefs on education that has been challenging to discern due to the intricacies from the dialogue. Socrates gives two differing visions on education Socrates says that the people fit for guardian’sSocrates then addresses the appropriate content of the existing tales to be told and discusses whether the guardians and poets should use imitative or simple narrative. Lastly, Divided line theory The dividing line is used to describe Allegory of the cave The real boat According to Aristotle he form and design of a thing, Aristotle Kilgore; The guilty man According to the argument Aristotle, every activity has a final cause. The character of a human being must involve the entire human life as a whole.  He discusses that the moral responsibility should be described by the nature of virtues and evaluation of morals which are the material cause in a human. This, therefore, makes the man still guilty because the character of a man depends on their entire life. Life after death Aristotle’s thinking and view revolved around the four causes. 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