Question 1 (a) Describe the stages of a rational decision-making process. (12 marks) To para-phrase the answers given by tutor (in red) 1. Problem identification At this stage, the decision maker is aware of the existence of a problem or opportunity. 2. Choose the best decision process At this stage, the decision maker needs to decide whether to make the decision alone or to involve others in the decision-making process. 3. Develop alternative solutions Third, the decision maker develops a list of possible alternative solutions. 4. Choose the best solution After completing the list of all possible solutions, you then choose the best solution from the list. 5. Implement the decision Next, you translate your plans into action. 6. Evaluation of the outcome At the final stage, the decision maker then evaluates the outcome of the decision. If the outcome is favourable, the decision maker is satisfied, and the decision process is complete. On the other hand, if the outcome is unfavourable, the decision maker may need to repeat the decision-making process again, and find a better solution. (b) Using a work-related problem, explain how you can apply the rational decision-making process to resolve the problem. (13 marks) Tutor guideline and requirement: This question requires your application of the six stages of the rational decision making process to resolve a work-related problem in your organisation. First, you need to assume that you are a manager or supervisor of your organisation. You then need to think of a work-related problem, for example dealing with a staff who is not motivated. How can you use the rational decision-making model to resolve the problem. Just one problem or issue will be sufficient for this question. For example, work-related issues can include the following: i. Lack of motivation issue ii. decision-making about promotion issues/problems of your subordinates; or iii. reward of merit-pay (incentives based on individual performance) issues/problems; or iv. any other work-related issues/problems in dealing with your subordinates. Question 2 (a) Explain the communication process using a diagram. (10 marks) . Tutor provide the following diagram. To choose another similar diagram for this question. The communication process model Source: Adapted from McShane & Von Glinow, 2013 To para-phrase the 5 paragraphs below with a diagram. In the first stage of this process, the sender forms a message, and encodes this message into words or gestures. (Let’s say you plan to tell your classmate to “hurry up” because both of you are catching the bus. You encode your message “please hurry up”, via the gesture of pointing to your watch with one finger tapping rapidly on your watch). The encoded message is then transmitted to the receiver via a communication channel. (Using back the example, the channel used to communicate your message is via face-toface conversation). Upon receiving your encoded message, the receiver (your friend) then tries to decode (i.e., interpret) your message. When the message is successfully decoded (i.e., understood), the receiver then provides feedback to the sender (you) that he understands. The receiver shows that he understands your message by encoding his own feedback (into words or gestures) and then retransmitting it back to you. (For example, your friend shows you that he understands by giving you a ‘thumbs-up’. He then displays 5 fingers in the air and points to his own watch. This is to indicate that he knows, and he will be ready in 5 minutes). In the last stage of the process, the sender (you) then receives the encoded message (feedback) from your friend and attempts to decode (interpret) it. The process above may appear simple, but in reality it could be distorted by the presence of noise. Noise inhibits and distorts the effective exchange of information between a sender and a receiver. Noise (also known as ‘barriers to effective communication’) will be discussed in the following section. (b) “Emails are not always the best means of communication”. Do you agree? Support your answer. (15 marks) To para-phrase for the answers given and use own words as much as possible. Yes, I agree that emails are not ……. Because……. The limitations of emails as a means of communication are: 1. Poor medium for communicating emotions In traditional face-to-face communication, both the sender and the receiver can observe each other’s facial expressions and body language in order to interpret the emotional meaning of words. However, this is not possible via emails, because the sender and the receiver do not see each other face-to-face. Despite the usage of ‘emoticons’ (e.g., ‘smileys’) in digital messages such as emails, these ‘emoticons’ cannot fully replace the complexity of real facial expressions and body language. 2. Poor medium for communicating complex information In traditional face-to-face communication, a speaker is able to adapt the speed and content of the message depending on the feedback received from the listener. For example, let’s say your supervisor is teaching you how to fix a complicated machine. Midway during his instruction, when it reaches the complicated part, you suddenly give your supervisor a confused look (indicating that you do not understand clearly). The supervisor notices this and repeats his instructions in a slower manner (even though you did not request him to repeat it). The supervisor also begins to explain in a more simplified manner from this point forth, and continually asks for feedback on whether you understand. Notice that all the machine repair instructions above would be difficult to be communicated via email to the employees. 3. Causes information overload It is an inevitable fact that emails can cause information overload. A large portion of an employee’s time is spent in reading and replying emails. Sometimes these emails may not be directly targeted to employee’s reply, but just sent as a carbon copy (e.g., CC) to inform multiple recipients. Too many emails can also cause the reader to merely skim through them at one time, and sometimes the reader may miss some important points or messages from these mails. Question 3 “Leadership effectiveness depends on the appropriate matching of leadership behaviour to the follower‟s level of maturity. Using a situational/contingency model of leadership, explain the statement. (25 marks) Tutor guidelines and requirement Situational Leadership Theory. Draw Situational Leadership Theory figure. Explain the Situational Leadership Theory. Use your own words as much as possible to explain. Answers: (para-phrase and use own words) Situational leadership theory Hersey and Blanchard (1969) proposed that no best leadership behaviour exists, and the appropriate matching of ‘leadership behaviours’ (e.g., task-oriented, relationship-oriented) with ‘follower’s level of maturity’ is important for leadership effectiveness. Follower’s level of maturity is hedged on two components, namely the follower’s ‘ability’ and ‘willingness’ to perform a task. At the highest level of maturity, followers are both able and willing to perform a task, while on the lowest end of the maturity spectrum, followers are unable and unwilling to perform tasks. The ‘task-oriented’ and ‘relationship-oriented’ dimensions are further segregated into four mutually exclusive components, namely the telling, selling, participating and delegating styles (Figure 4.7). If follower is R1, leadership style can be S1 (Telling) • Telling (task orientation: high, relationship orientation: low) The leader defines roles and tells people what, how, when, and where to do various tasks If follower is R2, leadership style can be S2 (Selling) • Selling (task orientation: high, relationship orientation: high) The leader provides both directive and supportive behaviour If follower is R3, leadership style can be S3 (Participating) • Participating (task orientation: low, relationship orientation: high) The leader and followers share in decision-making; the main role of the leader is facilitating and communicating If follower is R4, leadership style can be S4 (Delegating) • Delegating (task orientation: low, relationship orientation: low) The leader provides little direction or support. Responsibility for decisions and implementation is passed to follower. In contrast to Fiedler’s (1967) contingency model, Hersey and Blanchard (1969) argued that leadership behaviours are flexible. Thus, a major difference between the two models is that the latter proposes that leaders may adapt their behaviours to match the situation. Despite the initial popularity of the model, the lack of generalisability of the model caused it to lose support among the subsequent scholars (Vecchio 1983). Question 4 Case Study Read the case below and answer the questions that follow. Pfizer’s John Mackay’s Use of Power and Politics To Increase Performance Pfizer is one of the largest global pharmaceutical companies in the world. Its researchers and scientists have innovated some of the most successful medicine in the world such as its cholesterol reducer Lipitor. However lately its new medicines were not successful and the bosses were worried. One manager, John Mackay believed that he knew how to make Pfizer successful again. Mackay created a detailed plan for changing Pfizer‟s organisational sturcture and culture to change the way its managers made decisions and to make sure the company‟s resources, its talents and money would be put to their best use. Mackay was soon promoted as the head of Research and Development.As a result of mergers with other pharmaceutical companies, Pfizer had grown over time. Its organisational structure grew taller and taller and the size of its headquarters staff grew. With more managers and levels in the hierarchy, there was a greater need for committees to integrate across their activities. During meetings managers fought to promote the development of medicine that they had the most interest in and to secure the resources they needed to develop them. Mackay felt that too many managers and too many committees resulted in too much conflict between managers who were actively lobbying other managers and the CEO to promote the interests of their own product groups and the compnay‟s performance was suffering as a result. Although Pfizer‟s success depended on innovation, this conflict had resulted in Pfzer developing a bureaucratic culture that slowed down decision making and made it more difficult to identify promising new medicine. Mackay‟s plan to change this situation involved slashing the number of management layers between top managers and scientists from 14 to 7 that resulted in the layoff of thousands of Pfizer‟s managers. He also abolished the product development committees which he believed were slowing down the dscision making process of transforming innovative ideas into successful medicines. After streamlining the hierarchy of authority, he focussed his efforts in reducing the number of bureaucratic rules scientists had to follow. Mackay eliminated every kind of report that were unnecessary and also those which slowed down the innovation process. Mackay‟s efforts caused massive upheavals in the company as managers fought to keep their jobs and scientists fought to protect the medicines they were developing. However Mackay pushed his plans through with the support of the CEO who defended his efforts to create a new Research and Development product development process that empowered Pfizer‟s scientists and resulted in a culture that emphasised innovation and entrepreneurship. The scientists were happy with the new structure and the development of medicines speeded up. (a) Explain the source of John Mackay‟s power. (5 marks) Tutor Guidelines Source of power in organisations in order to understand the meanings of Legitimate power, Reward power, Coercive power, Expert power, and Referent power. Next, identify which one source of power John Mackay has. Refer to the case study, explain very briefly how John Mackay as a manager, used his source of power. Provide only two or three sentences for the answer. (b) Evaluate how Pfizer‟s organisation structure and culture affected its decision-making process. (10 marks) Tutor Guidelines For this question, you need to base your answer from the case study passage. Focus on the last sentence of the second paragraph of the case study passage, what has happened to the kind of organisational structure in Pfizer? Continue with the whole third paragraph of the case study passage, describe the impact or effect of Pfizer’s organisation structure and culture in its decision-making process. (c) Examine the cause of the political behaviour of the managers and scientists in Pfizer. (10 marks) Tutor Guidelines For this question, you need to base your answer from the case study passage. Your answer need not be too long. It would be sufficient to provide three or four relevant sentences for the answer. Focus on the fourth paragraph of the case study passage, what did Mackay do with the number of management layers? What did Mackay do with the number of bureaucratic rules scientists had to follow? Continue by focusing on the last paragraph, especially the first sentence, what were the impact or effects of Mackay’s efforts to the company and how and why did the managers and scientists react to the situation?

    Question 1

    Decision-making rule

    Total identification

    The principal trudge in the resolution-making rule is to study and realize the total that exacts nature explaind.  This confounds controlmatting and defining the total totally and in a evident course. Defining a total confounds identification of ticklish factors so that the factors can be unpopular and sentence extinguished if the total has any nameing factors that can neutralize solving it (Hersey et al., 2007).

    Prefer the best redisconnection rule

    In this rule, the redisconnection creator has to determine that the total is explaind with the best resolution-making rule. This is whereby they bear to determine that they excite the total in regulate to know the best course of solving the total. The redisconnection creator thoroughure evaluate the total and call-together counsel in regulate to evaluate the best course of solving the total. Collection of obsequious and pertinent axioms is accidental consequently the skin of redisconnection thoroughure await on the redisconnection rule used.

    Amplify opinion disconnections

    Majority of resolutions of resuscitation bear opinion disconnections that are accidental in solving the total. Consequently, the redisconnection necessitates the subsidy of thorough the opinion disconnections.  This trudge, consequently, confounds identification of thorough the opinion disconnections that can be used to explain the total.

    Prefer the best disconnection

    After having exposed the opinion disconnections, choosing of the best disconnection to be used is living.  This instrument that the opinions bear to be studyd and unshaken which can best explain the total. This thoroughure confound evaluating diversified factors in each opinion.  These mingle the promotive factors, accidental factors, restraint of media and surrender factors which thoroughure aid evaluate the wave and weight of the disconnection made to explain the total. Choosing the best disconnection to-boot confounds late proof, examination, decomposition, and conjecture.  

    Tool the resolution

    In this measure, the disconnection is converted into a resolution. In this contingency, consequently, the disconnection becomes the resuscitation that the redisconnection creator thoroughure trust on to explain the total.  Implementation of the redisconnection confounds communicating the resolution, assigning incongruous responsibilities that thoroughure emcapability explain the total, amplifying of procedures control the meaning of effort of the redisconnection and then amplify a feedback mechanism that thoroughure emcapability study the resuscitation of the resolution.

    Evaluation of the extinguishedcome

    The ultimate trudge confounds evaluation of the extinguishedcome of the disconnection used to explain the total. This is where the express and the expected results are compared. T6his thoroughure emcapability evaluate the weight and amiables of the disconnection.

    Applying sober resolution-making rule

    With frequent totals that are faced with performance spirit, it is material to know how to explain totals as a pioneer. Redisconnection making abextinguished motivation consequences thoroughure exact the pioneer to realize the total through having a crystalline communication with the employees in regulate to know their consequence. After knowing the consequence choosing the best redisconnection rule in regulate to explain the total. This thoroughure confound knowing the total if the total at index exacts nature explaind through involving others or can be manufactured peculiar. After realizeing the redisconnection rule then receipts to appear the opinion disconnections that thoroughure explain the consequences of motivation. These opinions can confound appearing at the course of motivation nature utilized, providing incentives, changing motivational temporization, utilizing rewards and amplifyment of their careers and skills. Among the opinion disconnections prefer the best disconnection from the inventory. Then besidesl the redisconnection and besidesl it into resuscitation and evaluate how it has empowerd explain the consequences of motivation. This is by measuring how the disconnection has improved the skin of performance in the performanceplace.

    Question 2

    Communication rule diagram

    Emails are referable attributable attributable attributable the best instrument of communication

    Yes, I suit that emails are referable attributable attributable attributable the best instrument of communication consequently they bear frequent restraints to communication future are referable attributable attributable attributable amiablesive instrument of communication.  Emails stagnation face-to-face communication future nameing some capabilities such as collection vernacular and facial expressions which are material control creed. An email is a controlm of a digital communication that canreferable attributable re-establish emotions and facial expressions. Emails are to-boot indigent mediums control communicating counsel that is multifarious (Adler et ., 2007). This is whereby the element does referable attributable attributable attributable name their expedite of communicating and delivering the satisfied. This may name knowing if the element sends multifarious counsel. This instrument that there is no random to elucidate the counsel or ask them to renew it. This is consequently the emails bear been sent to a multiple of berths. Another restraint is that emails source overloads of counsel. In some contingencys, counsel is fitting sent in regulate control the berth to admit barring is referable attributable attributable attributable thoroughowed to furnish any feedback. Such emails may source the admitr to touch through the email and may to-boot ignore some material counsel communication from the overloads of counsel.

    Question 3

    Situational pioneership plea figure

    The manliness roll is considered as the coercionce to established haughty barring achievable goals and the capforce and thoroughureingness to capture up operation and to-boot trust on direction and proof. In this coercionce refers to the skills and recognition of an specific to thorough the work. Pioneership amiablesiveness awaits on the thoroughureingness of the suite in reference to their manliness. Thoroughureingness is whereby the manliness has to do with commitment and abundant reliance of the specific.  It is material to know that race modify in their manliness roll awaiting on their operation, work, and concrete period accomplishing works. Consequently, the situational pioneership plea addresses the disgusting measures of the promptness of the suite which mingle S1, S2, S3, and S4.

    The plea to-boot indicates that control an amiablesive pioneership, there bear to transfer as from measure single to measure disgusting. This instrument control a pioneer to be amiablesive they bear to prosper the expend manliness roll of their suite. According to the manliness rolls of their suite, the disgusting modes of pioneership confound; pointed mode, which emphasizes on moral comportment; selling mode, which is remarkable by haughty work and referenceship comportment; participating mode where the pioneership is amiablesive on the reason of subsided comportment and haughty referenceship measure and the delegating mode of subsided referenceship and subsided work (McCleskey, 2014).

    Question 4

    Willing capability

    This is the skin of capability where an employee has imputable willingise and recognition.  In this contingency, Mackay’s recognition and willingise was a trudgeping stsingle control him to aid the guild bear ameliorate amplifyment rule. It to-boot acted as a trudgeping stsingle control him to perform fair capability. Through his exhibit of grateful and amiable willing capability, led to his preferment and made him essential control the guild (Harper,2015).

    The organizational erection negatively unnatural the resolution-making rule of the guild. The organizational erection of the guild had besides frequent managers who fought to elevate the salve amplifyment and securing the media that emcapability its amplifyment.  Besides frequent managers led to frequent conflicts imputable to managers need to elevate their hold curiosity-behalf in the issues. This slowed dhold the resolution-making rule and made it perplexing control the guild to realize shy amplifyments.

    Mackay’s intentional to slash the number of skillful-treatment layers focused on reducing the bureaucratic rules and abolishing the issue amplifyment committees. Mackay believed that these were the sources of slowed redisconnection making and newfangledness rule. These efforts sourced colossal cataclysms where the managers and the scientists fought control their jobs and guard of the salve amplifyment.

    References

    Adler, R. B., Rosenfeld, L. B., & Proctor, R. F. (2007). Interplay: The rule of interpersonal communication. Oxford University Press, USA.

    Harper, C. (2015). Organizations: Erections, rulees and extinguishedcomes. Routledge.

    McCleskey, J. A. (2014). Situational, transformational, and transactional pioneership and pioneership amplifyment. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117.

    Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. H., & Johnson, D. E. (2007). Skillful-treatment of organizational comportment (Vol. 9). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice bisection.