Please see below student work for reply : In theory, branding encompasses several functions in the two camps; consumers and businesses. In the consumer camp, the first function of branding is to gain awareness. A second function is reliability of quality, in both product and service. Dwight shared with us his experience with Dell which discouraged to patron with them again, versus a majority of classmates approving Apple’s reliable and quality products and service. A third function is to offer consumers a greater value compared to the brand’s competitors, with similar products. A fourth function a brand offers is personality. They create a perception in society where consumers are perceived as a certain category in society when using the products of a certain brand, and this ring true for the traditional big brands and more contemporary, upbeat brands. (Patterson, 1999) As consumers feel more attached to a brand, a relationship build on trust is formed with the brand. (Dall’Olmo Riley and De Chernatony, 2000) In order for brands to penetrate into the consumers’ heart, they must let the consumers ensure a linking value that the consumers themselves acknowledge. It is not for the business to impose. (Cova, 1997) This is consumer empowerment that leads to brand meaning. (Cova and Pace, 2006) For these reasons, I choose Apple products. For the business itself, branding is a powerful tool to fend off competition. Perhaps the epitome of such branding power is ‘communal approaches to consumption.’ (Cova, 1997, cited in Cova and Pace, 2006, pg. 1087) In their article, Cova and Pace (2006) cited Harley Davidson as the example of consumer approach where a culture was born through a group of fans who share the same passion and ethos. Apple produceD the same effect on society and more. It somehow changed the way of lives of many through the culture that is built. Even if they lost their market leadership recently (‘Apple: 2017 Brand Report Card’, [Online]), their strategy is to stick to their roots – ‘focus on breakthrough, consumer friendly, design-driven innovation.’ (Beverland, 2009, pg. 98) and not follow blindly the trend. Harley Davidson, an iconic motorbike brand, is facing a decline in sales. Even though it struggles to find a new batch of riders, since the core customers are ageing, Harley Davidson has no intention to come up with a completely new and different product. Rather, they are marketing to a new group to inject into them the interest of heavyweight motorbikes. (Team, 2017) There is a reason for this. By sticking to your roots, the brand can create authenticity and stay true to what the brand believes in. (Beverland, 2009) For Apple, Steve Jobs believed in what he was creating was ‘substance and style’ (pg. 97) and in subtlety. The period where they try to produce a machine that could switch between Apple Mac features and PC features proved to be the worst Apple years. It is therefore clear to Apple that they cannot follow trends to survive. (Beverland, 2009) For this reason, Apple is unique and this is the reason why they still have so many supporters worldwide despite the seemingly limited choice of products. I am one of them. Branding for Apple has certainly gained considerable market share, another major function. Branding gives meaning to consumers, and this is one of the attractions for me to purchase Apple products. The meaning behind for me is familiarity and quality guarantee, channelled by its user friendliness, unique apps, the freedom of choice in apps, friendly and knowledgeable staff who are reliable and supportive, all the time, be it online or at the shop. For organisational buying, most classmates agreed that there is a set norm and the purchasing process is done through a decision-making unit known as the buying centre. (Kotler and Kelly, 2012) The attraction of branding is similar to individual purchasing in terms of reputation, quality and reliability. It takes consistency to build these three qualities, and in organisational purchasing, consistency is vital, since it involves all staff in the company who would be using the computing products. Another similar trait is trust. A good brand offers their consumers the comfort of dependability, ‘an active, contributing member.’ (Fournier, 1998, pg. 344) Also, a good brand is an endorsement for the credibility of the consumer organisation through the supplier’s corporate credibility. (Kotler and Kelly, 2012) Again, it gives meaning to the consumers through the relationship built, which grows towards a partnership of interdependence. (Fournier, 1998) Is Branding all good then? Not per Holt (2002). First, branding causes desires which provoke action. Then, since branding is costly, it is reserved for the powerful businesses who could afford to build a brand and impose a ‘cultural authority.’ (pg. 71) There is a sense of suffocation as brands do not appeal to all, due to the perceived dominance which may project a certain dictatorship. Conclusion Branding is important for the consumer and the business. There is a subtle power that draws these two forces together to complement each other. Without branding, consumer will not know the businesss and its products, and without branding, business will lack the power for market penetration, positioning and increasing share. This applies to both individual and organisational purchasing. The brand image depicts the belief of the organisation and projects its trustworthiness and reliability, which directly point towards its reputation. Resources Internal Dall’Olmo Riley, F. & De Chernatony, L. (2000) ‘The service brand as relationship builder’, British Journal of Management, 11 (2), pp. 137-150, [Online], UoL Online Library, assessed on 28th June, 2017 Patterson, M. & O’Malley, L. (2006) ‘Brands, consumers and relationships: A review’, Irish Marketing Review, 18 (1/2), pp. 10-20. [Online], UoL Online Library, assessed on 28th June, 2017 Cova, B. (1997), “Community and consumption: towards a definition of the linking value of products or services”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31 Nos 3/4, pp. 297-316, [Online], UoL Online Library, assessed on 29th June, 2017 Cova, B. & Pace, S. (2006) ‘Brand community of convenience products: new forms of customer empowerment—the case of “my Nutella the community”’, European Journal of Marketing, 40 (9/10), pp. 1087-1105, [Online], UoL Online Library, assessed on 28th June, 2017 Michael Beverland, (2009), ‘Building Brand Authenticity – 7 Habits of Iconic Brands’, New York, Palgrave MacMillan, [Online], UoL Online Library, assessed on 24th June, 2017 Kotler, Philip, Kevin Keller. A Framework for Marketing Management, 5th Edition. Pearson Learning Solutions, 2/2011. VitalBook file. Fournier, S. (1998) ‘Consumers and their brands: developing relationships theory in consumer research’, Journal of Consumer Research, 24 (4), pp. 343-373, [Online], UoL Online Library, assessed on 28th June, 2017 Douglas B. Holt, (2002), ‘Why Do Brands Cause Trouble? A Dialetical Theory of Consumer Culture and Branding’, JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc. • Vol. 29, pp. 70-90, [Online], UoL Online Library, assessed on 28th June, 2017 External ‘Apple: 2017 Brand Report Card’, (2017), ‘Laptop Magazine, April 2017, [Online], available at, assessed on 26th June, 2017 Trefis Team (2017, ‘Harley-Davidson Works To Reverse The Declining Sales Trend In The Home Market’, Forbes, February, 2017, [Online], available at, assessed on 29th June, 2017


    Student’s Spectry


    Professor’s Spectry



    Reply to student’s work

    Yes, stigmaing is perfect cheerful. When a guild wants to dilate in the dispense, it turns itself to stigmaing. Stigmaing growths the dispenseing jurisdiction of a guild and improves the result disposition. It creates a fair contemplate and feels coercion the act. The guild is abundantly recognizable in the dispenseplace. A guild’s growth unity uneven can growth its profitability as a perfect. Apple has worked so constrained on its stigmaing, and this has growthd its certifiedness (Smith & Zook, 2011). Perfect the consumers in the globe can substantiate an Apple result anywhere they go by contemplateing at their Apple logo. So they attain everyday with the result so undeviatingly and concede the result. He or she get think it coercion buying. Stigmaing growths customer fealty to a result and guild.

    A cheerful stigmaing get succor acguild to plummetize a encouragement trophy coercion its result. In most cases, the cost is excellent consequently of the require and leads to prodigious produce coercion the guild (‘Apple: 2017 Stigma Report Card’, 2017),. Apple results are of a excellent cost consequently the customer is certified that they are of the best disposition. The stigma gives the guild a desire vivacity in the dispense. Even if the proprietor of the Apple died today, the Apple result would calm?} be conceded in the dispense.

    However, stigmaing has a scant disadvantages in the dispense. Coercion point, multifarious stigmaing companies in the globe contest to be enumerate undivided. The stigmaing may grace a usual. Someundivided may amalgamate the Apple vocable to average a divergent result. It is never the appearance of a guild to establish its stigma a earthly barring rather to grace the plummet (Smith & Zook, 2011). As-well, the guild incurs prodigious costs opportunity designing a stigma logo, advertising, and increasing currency. Stigmaing does referable occur overnight; the proprietors bestow sleepless nights antecedently attainting the fair spectry. Another imperil of stigmaing is that uniformly a stigma attains a out-of-sorts spectry, then it is unusable to indoctrinate clients otherwise or modify its effigy. The guild flexibility is as-well poor in a fashion consequently of stigmaing. A customer associates solely undivided result to a stigma and never fast about other results of the selfselfsame stigma.


    Smith, P. R., & Zook, Z. (2011). Marketing communications: integrating offline and online with political media. Kogan Page.

    ‘Apple: 2017 Stigma Report Card’, (2017), ‘Laptop Magazine, April 2017, [Online], beneficial at, assessed on 26th June, 2017