*** PLEASE read the instractions for the assigmnent carefully. You are required to write an argument wherein you apply all the course content. The topic of the assignment is the smoking bans on university and college campuses. Smoking is banned inside buildings on nearly all campuses. Recently those smoking bans have extended to outside areas near doorways, popular outdoor locations on campus, and in some cases the entire campus. Starting in July 2013, WVU is banning smoking on campus. By completing this assignment, you should be well prepared to persuasively argue for or against WVU%u2019s decision. YOUR JOB is to decide whether universities should ban smoking on campuses. Below is how you should go about doing this. Read the list of pros and the list of cons about campus smoking bans. These lists are provided on the following pages. On your own, read more about the growing trend of smoking bans. It is important to have read information on BOTH sides of the argument (positive and negative) so that your appeal is stronger. Decide if YOU believe whether smoking bans are helpful or harmful. This means, pick a side of the argument. Write a paper to persuade university decision-makers that smoking bans either are or are not in the best interest of the university community. Make sure to consider possible effects on the university, the town, and the students. For example, if you think smoking bans help universities and the people associated with them, then write about that%u2014or vice versa. REMEMBER you are constructing an argument%u2014so construct a sound one in the way we%u2019ve learned in class. Don%u2019t forget to think about your rhetorical situation. Use at least four of the references provided to you AND find at least four of your own references. Below are the requirements of the paper. The title page must have your Name, Date, Section #, 700# and either of the following phrases %u201CPOSITIVE Influence of Smoking Bans%u201D or %u201CNEGATIVE Influence of Smoking bans%u201D to match your position on the topic. The content of your paper must be 2 full pages long but cannot be longer than 3 full pages. The content of your paper must be double spaced. Pages must have 1 inch margins with 12 point Times New Roman font. Headers that include your name and the page number must be on all content pages EXCEPT the title page. The last page of your paper must be a reference page formatted using the American Psychological Association (APA) rules for formatting sources. The reference manual is available in every library on campus. You may find a few tips from the reference manual at http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/index.htm. Your list of references may be any length. The number of reference pages is not included in the number of pages required for the content of your argument. The BEST papers will have 4 or more references from the list provided to you and 4 or more OF YOUR OWN. The Communication Studies Librarian has created a Library Guide just for this assignment. It%u2019s available at this link: http://libguides.wvu.edu/comm_104 . The Guide provides you all of the information on this paper and more. You can access APA formatting help, the links to the references listed on the following pages and search engines designed especially for this assignment. Pros of universities banning smoking on campus Each of the facts below includes a source. The correctly formatted source list is provided at the end of this document. If you are writing from the position of PRO, banning smoking on campus is positive, include 4 or more of these sources in your argument. 1. Smoking bans do not violate a constitutional right to privacy, nor are smokers a protected group of persons (Public Health Law & Policy, 2005). 2. Universities have a right to ban smoking because they must protect the rights of their non-smoking student to health (Fortin, 2007). 3. %u201CApproximately 69% of smokers want to quit smoking%u201D (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012) 4. %u201CAbout 40% of nonsmoking adults and 54% of children show evidence of tobacco exposure through secondhand smoke%u201D (PBS Newshour, 2010). 5. %u201CSmoking causes coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United States%u201D (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). 6. %u201CSecondhand smoke is a known human carcinogen and contains more than 50 chemicals that can cause cancer%u201D (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2007) 7. %u201CSmoking harms nearly every organ of the body and diminishes a person%u2019s overall health%u201D (National Cancer Institute, 2012) 8. Since a smoking ban was implemented on campus at Michigan State University, more students have sought assistance in quitting (USA Today, 2011). 9. Comprehensive smoking bans can reduce secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). 10. Using the right approach to enforcement can promote up to 98% compliance (Sun, Prenzler, Buys, & McMeniman, 2012). Cons of universities banning smoking on campus Each of the facts below includes a source. The correctly formatted source list is provided at the end of this document. If you are writing from the position of CON, banning smoking on campus is negative, include 4 or more of these sources in your argument. 1. University police have more important tasks than enforcing smoking bans (Rigby, 2010). 2. Students at the University of Minnesota identified the rights of smokers as problem of a campus smoking ban (University of Minnesota, 2008). 3. Universities only have jurisdiction to punish students for smoking on no-smoking campuses, not campus visitors (Shearer, 2011). 4. By reducing or quitting smoking there is a good chance people will have difficulties concentrating and experience negative feelings. (Dijkstra & DeVries, 1996). 5. Weight gain, irritability, anxiety, and overall sense of loss are common short-term effects of smoking cessation (Young, Rachal, & Carr, 1989). 6. Most people do not inhale enough secondhand smoke for it to have an effect on their health (Sullum, 1994). 7. Widespread smoking bans could damage the economy by harming the tobacco industry, which employees 47,000 people (Brownlee & Roberts, 1994). 8. Approximately 52% of smokers attempted, unsuccessfully, to quit in 2010 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). 9. Experts are unable to reach a consensus about the legality of smoking regulation laws (Blanke & Corke, 2008). 10. Campus smoking bans will be difficult to enforce because many campuses are woven into a surrounding town (Meiler, 2012). This page begins a list of all the references used in each list in their correct APA format. Make the sources you use from this list look exactly like this on your own References pages. Format your additional sources according to the APA guidelines. References Blanke, D. D., & Corke, K. (2008). Tobacco law symposium: Exploring the limits of smoking regulation. William Mitchell Law Review, 34, 1587-1593. Retrieved from http://publichealthlawcenter.org/sites/default/files/resources/tclc-symposium-blanke.pdf Brownlee, S. & Roberts, S. V. (1994). Should cigarettes be outlawed? U.S. News & World Report, 116 (15), p. 32-38. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Reduced secondhand smoke exposure after implementation of a comprehensive statewide smoking ban%u2014New York, June 26, 2003%u2014June 30, 2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56, 705-708. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5628a2.htm Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Smoking and tobacco use. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/ Dijkstra, A., & DeVries, H. (1996). Pros and cons of quitting, self-efficacy, and the stages of change in smoking cessation. Journal Of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 64, 758-763. doi:10.1037//0022-006X.64.4.758 Fortin, J. (2007). Smoke-free college trend growing. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2007-11-12/health/hm.smokefree.campus_1_smoke-free-college-smoking-indoors-cancer-society?_s=PM:HEALTH Meiler, M. (2012, March 8). Campus smoking ban is not enforceable. The Record. Retrieved from http://www.bscrecord.com/campus-smoking-ban-is-not-enforcable-1.2815262#.UI3xZxgU4fE National Cancer Institute. (2012). Harms of smoking and health benefits of quitting. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/cessation PBS Newshour. (2010). A blog of news and insight. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2010/09/in-us-decline-in-smoking-rate-remains-stalled.html Public Health Law & Policy. (2005). There is no constitutional right to smoke. Retrieved from http://www.hcd.ca.gov/codes/rt/B_ThereIsNoConstitutionalRighttoSmoke_CA_4_05.pdf Rigby, A. (2010). No smoking on campus: More schools ban tobacco products. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/OnCampus/smoking-campus-schools-ban-tobacco-products/story?id=10889220#.UI6WPBgU4fE Shearer, L. (2011, February 13). Colleges: Smoking bans work. Athens Banner Herald. Retrieved from http://onlineathens.com/stories/021311/new_784875755.shtml Sullum, J. (1994). Just how bad is seconhand smoke?. National Review, 46 (9), p. 51-54. Retrieved from http://www.nationalreview.com Sun, J., Prenzler, T., Buys, N., & McMeniman, M. (2012). Preventing smoking in open public places in university campus settings: A situational crime prevention approach. Health Education, 112, 47-60. doi:10.1108/09654281211190254 University of Michigan. (2008). 2008 on-campus smoking survey. Retrieved from http://www.academic.umn.edu/provost/reports/smo_survey08.html U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2007). The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke. Retrieved from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/secondhandsmoke/factsheet9.html USA Today. (2011). Increasing number of colleges are banning smokers. Retrieved from http://www.usatodayeducate.com/staging/index.php/ccp/increasing-number-of-colleges-are-banning-smokers Young, R. C., Rachal, R, E., & Carr, P. G. (1989). Short-term effects of smoking cessation: Benefit or penalty? Journal of the National Medical Association, 6, 685-690. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2625817/

    Why are Campuses Going Fumefree and/or Tobacco-Free?

    The calculate of campuses going fumefree and tobacco-free jumped by leaps and bounds past 2009. The uptick is ascribable in part to the efforts of the American Nursery Health Association (ACHA) which adopted a Position Avowment on Tobacco in September 2009 (updated in November 2011) and the collective principle alter encircling when and where people fume as a development of city- and avow-wide fumefree methods. In fact:

    The preponderance of the U.S. population does referable attributable attributable attributable fume.

    48.9% of the U.S. population is fortified by a 100% fumefree Workplace, Restaurant, AND Bar method.

    Most topical and avow methods do referable attributable attributable attributable embody nursery campuses, although some avows do embody avow schools in their fumefree workplace methods. See ANR Foundation’s U.S. Nurserys and Universities with Fumefree and Tobacco-Free Policies register.

    Therefore, there is a deficiency to caggravate employees and students from charybdis to secondhand fume on nursery campuses and form an expectation that this buttress and established environment be smokefree.

    It is also dubious to referable attributable attributablee that the tobacco toil continues to market and inform its products to early adults in manseniority to maintain its profitability, and the tobacco manifestation and prevalence statistics for early adults reveal that the drawing is having an effect. One deficiency merely contemplate at promotions held in bars across campuses whole aggravate the empire to accomplish that 18-24 year long-standings are important to the tobacco toil. According to the 2012 Surgeon General’s Report on Tobacco Manifestation Among Youth and Early Adults:

    • In 2010, there were over than 20 favorite students enrolled in degree-granting institutions. This does referable attributable attributable attributable embody present, staff, and visitors to campuses who are also impacted by a fumefree or tobacco-free campus plan.
    • Many abandon factors, including tobacco use, peak from 18-25 years of seniority; nursery accoutrements could be a turning top in choosing referable attributable attributable attributable to manifestation tobacco
    • 24.8% of full-time nursery students aged 18-22 years long-standing were ordinary fumers in 2010.
    • The calculate of fumers who initiated smoking succeeding seniority 18 increased from 600,000 in 2002 to 1 favorite in 2010.
    • Progression from occasional to daily smoking closely regularly occurs by seniority 26.
    • While smoking rates are higher for their peers referable attributable attributable attributable enrolled in nursery, nursery students and campus policies exhibit a rare occasion to form and sustain tobacco-free buttress.

    Curbing tobacco bias on campuses could frustrate a fantastic cohort of lifetime fumers.

    Students on campuses across the empire are immanent efforts to refmanifestation tobacco toil sponsorship, grants, donations, and other gifts, as well-behaved-behaved as departure fumefree campuses policies. Read over encircling the elucidation and details encircling these policies. Contact us if you would relish help.