PHIL1010: CRITICAL THINKING Analogy Exercises EXERCISE 7.1A, #9 (amended) Researchers at Very Cool University (VCU) have been studying the nervous system. They’ve focused on the nervous system of crayfish, which, like the nervous systems of humans, requires calcium to play a crucial role. The researchers have learned how to cure those nervous system disorders in crayfish that result from calcium imbalance. Perhaps their discoveries will lead to important advances in treating similar human nervous system disorders. Analogue: Crayfish nervous system Primary subject: Human nervous system Similarities: (F1) Requires calcium to play a crucial role, (F2) is vulnerable to disorders caused by calcium imbalance What is the conclusory feature? Put the argument into the standard form of an analogical argument. ! of ! 1 4 EXERCISE 7.1B, #7 The planets are attracted to the sun in inverse proportion to the square of their distance from the sun, and they revolve around the sun in orbits. Electrons are attracted to the nucleus of an atom in inverse proportion to the square of their distance from the nucleus, so it seems likely that electrons revolve around the nucleus in orbits. What is the analogue? What is the primary subject? What are the similarities? What is the conclusory feature? Put the argument into the standard form of an analogical argument. ! of ! 2 4 EXERCISE 7.3C, #6 (amended) The fossilized remains of a hitherto unidentified eutherian mammal [a mammal with a placenta] from the Cretaceous period has been discovered in northeastern China. This new kind of mammal has limb and foot structures known only in those Cretaceous eutherians who used their feet and limbs for climbing and were arboreal [tree-dwelling], but not in those who used their feet and limbs for running and were terrestrial [ground-dwelling]. Researchers therefore suspect that the remains are of an arboreal eutherian. What is the analogue? What is the primary subject? What are the similarities? What is the conclusory feature? Put the argument into the standard form of an analogical argument. ! of ! 3 4 EXERCISE 7.3C, #3, p. 263. In this long passage, there’s an analogical argument that can be put into standard form using only two similarities and a conclusory feature. See if you can represent the argument in such an abbreviated way. It will help to identify the analogue and primary subject first and then identify the conclusory feature. (Ask yourself: What feature is the primary subject suspected to have?) ! of ! 4 4

    Critical Thinking

    Exercise 7.1A

    P1 Researchers at Very Cool University (VCU) feel been studying the expressive classification.

    P2 They’ve focused on the expressive classification of crayfish, which, affect the expressive classifications of rationals, requires calcium to dramatize a discriminating role.

    P3 The researchers feel conversant how to renewlight those expressive classification disorders in crayfish that effect from calcium imbalance.

    Perhaps,

    C Their discoveries allure guide to main advances in treating concordant rational expressive classification

    disorders.

    The conclusory element in the extract involves the occurrence that doctors can verification the technologies verificationd in the treatment of crayfish to unfold the problems solemn their patients (Hitchcock 208).

    Exercise 7.1B

    P1 The planets are attracted to the sun in inverse rate to the clear of their length from the sun.

    P2 Electrons are attracted to the central-part of an bit in inverse rate to the clear of their length from the central-part

    So,

    C it seems affectly that electrons rock encircling the central-part in orbits.

    Primary question is the sun.

    Similarities are defined by the arrangement of revolution

    Conclusory element enables men-folks to correlate the sort of neutrons becaverification of their coercionce to rock entire their orbits affect the planets.

    Exercise 7.3C

    Primary question is a mammal with a locatenta

    Similarities are defined by the elements such as the part and pavement structures that empower mammals to agitate from undivided locate to another.

    Conclusory element the mammal with a locatenta represents an arboreal eutherian.

    P1 The fossilized sediment of a hitherto unidentified eutherian mammal [a mammal with a locatenta] from the Cretaceous determination has been discovered in north-eastern China.

    P2 This newlightlight peel of mammal has part and pavement structures unconcealed merely in those Cretaceous eutherians who verificationd their feet and parts coercion climbing and were arboreal [tree-dwelling].

    Therefore,

    C Researchers mistrust that the sediment are of an arboreal eutherian.

    Works Cited

    Hitchcock, David. “Reasoning by analogy: A open assumption.” On Reasoning and Argument. Springer, Cham, 2017. 201-214.