M1D1: The Role of Culture in International Business Operations INSTRUCTIONS When preparing for your discussion post on this case, it is recommended that you read through it several times. Read through it the first time to familiarize yourself with the prompt. On the second reading, consider your assigned role in the situation, and let that guide your perspective. Look deeper at the details: facts, problems, organizational goals, objectives, policies, strategies. Next, consider the concepts, theories, tools and research you need to use to address the issues presented. Then, complete any research, analysis, calculations, or graphing to support your decisions and make recommendations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION In this module, you covered the role that culture can play in international business operations. One way to assess potential impacts that culture can have on an organization is through a review of the Cross-cultural Communication Competence Model that includes four dimensions: interpersonal skills, team effectiveness, cultural uncertainty, and cultural empathy (Scott, 2016). In addition to this week’s textbook readings, the article, Cross culture management: Global healthcare workers (Scott, 2016), should be utilized in this module’s discussion forum. DISCUSSION PROMPT You have just been selected by the World Health Organization to take a team of medical personnel, including doctors, nurses, and technicians into South Sudan to start a children’s hospital. Your team consists of personnel from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Brazil. None of your team has worked together before. You decide to provide your team training on the Cross-Cultural Communication Competence Model developed by Mateev and Nelson (Scott, 2016). Tasks: Answer the following questions: Read the article about the Cross-Cultural Communication Competence Model and provide a brief overview of the key aspects of each of the Cross-Cultural Communication Competence Model’s four dimensions and how the model was applied. Discuss any weaknesses that the model has and what you recommend adding to the model to improve it. Discuss what you believe your biggest challenge would be to get your team to work together and open a successful children’s hospital. How would you overcome this challenge? Explain how you will use key aspects of the model to develop training for the team. How does the political environment of each country impact how you approach the management style you utilize for your team? When responding to at least two classmates, consider the weakness they addressed in the model. Explain how the weakness they highlighted could be an opportunity. Ensure you support your responses with scholarly reference material using APA formatting. REFERENCES Scott, K. (2016). Cross culture management: Global healthcare workers. Journal of Continuing Education Topics and Issues, 18(3), 68-75. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/ 1817067880?accountid=8289 00000 M2D1: Trans-Pacific Partnership INSTRUCTIONS When preparing for your discussion post on this case, it is recommended that you read through it several times. Read through it the first time to familiarize yourself with the prompt. On the second reading, consider your assigned role in the situation, and let that guide your perspective. Look deeper at the details: facts, problems, organizational goals, objectives, policies, strategies. Next, consider the concepts, theories, tools and research you need to use to address the issues presented. Then, complete any research, analysis, calculations, or graphing to support your decisions and make recommendations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION International trade agreements are often written from a legal vantage point with language that may not be easily understood by all stakeholders. This might result in misinterpretations of the agreement by the various stakeholders and unexpected and/or unintended second- and third-order effects. For example, an international trade agreement may inadvertently put an industry at risk between one of the signatories. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a policy instrument which has personnel and organizations that support the agreement, but also groups that vehemently oppose it. DISCUSSION PROMPT You have just been elected to the U.S. Congress and appointed to sit on a committee to evaluate whether the U.S. should sign on to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). You are the junior member on the committee and have been tasked with developing a list of pros and cons for the TPP. Tasks: After completing the reading and watching the video in this module, answer the following: Provide the top three pros and three cons for the TPP. Explain why you feel each pro/con is significant enough to warrant discussion within the congressional committee. Analyze the TPP using one of the trade theories explored in this module. You should specifically address whether the TPP would violate any of the theories key aspects. Provide your recommendation and rationalization to the committee, on whether the U.S. should sign on to the TPP. Assume that the U.S. has not yet decided whether to join or not. When responding to at least two classmates, assume you are a member of the committee, and explain, using relevant theories and data, why their choice on whether the U.S. should join the TPP is or is not a wise decision. You must support your response to your peer with well-researched information (i.e. – not just opinion). Ensure you support your responses with scholarly reference material using APA formatting. EVALUATION See associated rubric. Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you post it. When you are ready to post, click on the “Create Thread” button for a new thread or “Reply” to respond to a previous post. Then, copy/paste the text from your document into the message field, and click “Submit.” 0 0 0 M3D1: International Trade and Political Influences INSTRUCTIONS When preparing for your discussion post on this case, it is recommended that you read through it several times. Read through it the first time to familiarize yourself with the prompt. On the second reading, consider your assigned role in the situation, and let that guide your perspective. Look deeper at the details: facts, problems, organizational goals, objectives, policies, strategies. Next, consider the concepts, theories, tools and research you need to use to address the issues presented. Then, complete any research, analysis, calculations, or graphing to support your decisions and make recommendations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Should the world move to a standard methodology for measuring and reporting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)? Kerner (2014) hypothesized that, “If the relationship between democracy and FDI is driven by political risk, we should expect it to be more evident in measure of fixed capital expenditures by majority-owned affiliates than in the flow and stock data that are more commonly used to test this proposition” (p. 813). Did Kerner’s (2014) study answer our question about whether to develop a standard methodology for measuring and reporting FDI? DISCUSSION PROMPT After completing the module’s reading, respond to the questions concerning Kerner’s (2014) article: What we talk about when we talk about foreign direct investment. Tasks: Complete the following: What is the author’s major concern about measuring FDI? Provide three examples of policy instruments that governments can use to influence FDI. Does his analysis provide sufficient evidence to answer the question of whether the world should adopt a standard methodology for measuring and reporting FDI? Include an analysis of the benefits and costs (the downside) of FDI. Provide specific supporting evidence of why or why not. When responding to at least two classmates, provide substantive feedback on why the evidence your peer provided in question “c” was not sufficient for world leaders to decide on whether to support the worldwide measurement and report standards for FDI. You must support your response to your peer with well-researched information (i.e. – not just opinion). Ensure you support your responses with scholarly reference material using APA formatting. REFERENCES Kerner, A. (2014). What We Talk About When We Talk About Foreign Direct Investment. International Studies Quarterly, 58(4), 804-815. EVALUATION See associated rubric. Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you post it. When you are ready to post, click on the “Create Thread” button for a new thread or “Reply” to respond to a previous post. Then, copy/paste the text from your document into the message field, and click “Submit.” 0 0 0 M4D1: Exchange Rate Risk Management During Financial Transactions INSTRUCTIONS When preparing for your discussion post on this case, it is recommended that you read through it several times. Read through it the first time to familiarize yourself with the prompt. On the second reading, consider your assigned role in the situation, and let that guide your perspective. Look deeper at the details: facts, problems, organizational goals, objectives, policies, strategies. Next, consider the concepts, theories, tools and research you need to use to address the issues presented. Then, complete any research, analysis, calculations, or graphing to support your decisions and make recommendations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION If an organization’s revenue and expenses occur primarily in currency, there is a risk of financial loss due to exchange rate fluctuations between a transaction completion and the accompanying financial transaction (think: delay between paying with a check and the money being withdrawn from your bank account) (Rózsa and Darabos, 2015). The exchange rate risk associated with a transaction can be managed with internal and/or external techniques. DISCUSSION PROMPT After completing the module’s reading, answer the following questions concerning Rózsa and Darabos’ (2015) article: The chosen exchange rate as the possibility of reducing the risks of currency exchange transactions. Tasks: Complete the following: Select two theories and evaluate the uses and limitations of how currency exchange rates are determined for each. Select one of the internal exchange rate risk management techniques discussed by Rózsa and Darabos (2015) and develop an example of how the technique could be effective. You should utilize notional numbers to complete your example. For example, you may have a transaction that was made at 100 Yen (at the point of sale), but then the bank transaction was not completed until 12 hours later in Euros. You could show how fluctuations in the exchange rate at the time of sale and bank transaction changed. Explain in your own words what the authors’ problem statement was (hint – it is not just a restatement of the title of the article). Does the article’s analysis provide sufficient evidence, in the Kereskedo Ltd. example, to analyze the problem? Provide specific supporting evidence of why or why not. When responding to at least two classmates, provide substantive feedback on why the example your peer developed in question “b” was not accurate and/or the limitations of their example. You must support your response to your peer with well-researched information (you may have to complete calculations of your own to demonstrate why their analysis was not accurate or the limitations that exist). Ensure you support your responses with scholarly reference material using APA formatting. REFERENCES Rózsa, A., & Darabos, É. (2015). The chosen exchange rate as the possibility of reducing the risks of currency exchange transactions. Annals of The University of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 24(1), 923-926. EVALUATION See associated rubric. Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you post it. When you are ready to post, click on the “Create Thread” button for a new thread or “Reply” to respond to a previous post. Then, copy/paste the text from your document into the message field, and click “Submit.” 0 0 0 M5D1: Foreign Market Entry Strategy INSTRUCTIONS When preparing for your discussion post on this case, it is recommended that you read through it several times. Read through it the first time to familiarize yourself with the prompt. On the second reading, consider your assigned role in the situation, and let that guide your perspective. Look deeper at the details: facts, problems, organizational goals, objectives, policies, strategies. Next, consider the concepts, theories, tools and research you need to use to address the issues presented. Then, complete any research, analysis, calculations, or graphing to support your decisions and make recommendations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION The following market-related factors can influence an organization’s choice of foreign market entry techniques (Sarapovas, Heuettinger, & Rickuset, 2016): Market attractiveness Demand uncertainty Country risk Legal restrictions Cultural similarity between home and host nation The weighting of the market-related factors will depend on the specific organization and their mission and strategic objectives. DISCUSSION PROMPT After completing the module’s reading, select one of your final project countries (developing or developed), and answer the questions. Tasks: Complete the following: Using one of your Final Project countries (developing or developed) and, after researching each of the five market-related factors (Sarapovas et al., 2016), discuss how you would weigh each factor using a 100% scale (i.e. – one factor can be 25%, while another can be 40%, but the total for all five factors must equal 100%). Ensure your choices of weighting values are supported by sound reasoning and substantive research that demonstrates you understand your selected country. How would your organization’s (Sustainable Goods) international operating experience impact how you weight each of the five factors? If you had to add one additional market-related factor, what would it be and why? Make sure you support your choice with sound reasoning. When responding to at least two classmates, provide substantive feedback on why their chosen weighting would not be appropriate for their chosen country. You must support your response to your peer with well-researched information (you should use one or more scholarly sources to support your response). It is highly recommended that you utilize the Excelsior College library to conduct your research. All students/researchers must be able to discern what is solid, source/reference material and what is not. So, what is scholarly (sometimes referred to as peer-reviewed)? Scholarly sources can generally be identified by several features: Content (topic being discussed) Audience (for the layperson or someone familiar with the research on the subject?) Language (higher level language and discipline-specific terminology) Intent (case study, report of experimental results…) Authorship (qualifications of author to write on the topic, usually an advanced degree with years of experience and research on the topic) Peer-review (material is evaluated by experts and only published if meets the discipline’s standards) References (other materials used in the research process are listed in a bibliography or footnotes) Listing (check Ulrich’s in the Research Databases to see if the publication is listed as refereed) Ensure you support your responses with scholarly reference material using APA formatting. REFERENCES Šarapovas, T., Huettinger, M., & Ričkus, D. (2016). The impact of market-related factors on the choice of foreign market entry mode by service firms. Organizations & Markets in Emerging Economies, 7 (1), 34-52. EVALUATION See associated rubric. Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you post it. When you are ready to post, click on the “Create Thread” button for a new thread or “Reply” to respond to a previous post. Then, copy/paste the text from your document into the message field, and click “Submit.” 0 0 0 M6D1: Mixed Sourcing Strategy, the Right Choice or a Disaster in the Making? INSTRUCTIONS When preparing for your discussion post on this case, it is recommended that you read through it several times. Read through it the first time to familiarize yourself with the prompt. On the second reading, consider your assigned role in the situation, and let that guide your perspective. Look deeper at the details: facts, problems, organizational goals, objectives, policies, strategies. Next, consider the concepts, theories, tools and research you need to use to address the issues presented. Then, complete any research, analysis, calculations, or graphing to support your decisions and make recommendations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION In the video Responsible sourcing in Nestlé (Video file, 2 min 24 sec), the company explains how they ensure the sources of their hazelnuts is done responsibly. Nestlé procures hazelnuts and other raw ingredients from six of the seven continents (Nestlé, 2015). So how does Nestlé ensure they are only purchasing raw ingredients from responsible sources? What is a responsible source? DISCUSSION PROMPT After completing the module’s reading and watching the video, Responsible sourcing in Nestlé (Video file, 2 min 24 sec), complete the task below. Tasks: Complete the following: What is your definition of a responsible source (of a product)? This answer should be in your own words. Yuwei and Thong Ngee (2015) describe a mixed sourcing strategy, where a company utilizes both foreign and domestic sources. You have just been hired as the Procurement Officer for a sustainable products retail chain. The company prides itself on only purchasing goods that are sourced responsibly. Your Chief Executive Officer (CEO) has asked you to brief the C’s (CEO, COO, CFO, CTO, etc. ) on the potential risks of utilizing a mixed sourcing strategy as opposed to only utilizing known domestic providers. You should discuss the three most significant risk factors (no more, no less than three). Support your analysis with scholarly evidence. Describe, in your own words, how Yuwei and Thong Ngee (2015) propose to handle sourcing under uncertain conditions. This response should be limited to no more than three sentences (your explanation should be clear and concise). When responding to at least two classmates, provide substantive feedback on how one of the three risks your peer identified could be mitigated. Your response should utilize concepts covered in this course. Ensure you support your responses with scholarly reference material using APA formatting. REFERENCES Nestle. (2015). Responsible sourcing in Nestlé. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=KoYX_-0obPI&feature=youtu.be Yuwei, K., & Thong Ngee, G. (2015). Strategic improvement of the quality of global sourcing in unstable environments. Current Issues of Business & Law, 10, 227-246. EVALUATION See associated rubric. Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you post it. When you are ready to post, click on the “Create Thread” button for a new thread or “Reply” to respond to a previous post. Then, copy/paste the text from your document into the message field, and click “Submit.” 0 0 0 M7D1: There Is No Business Case for Sustainability INSTRUCTIONS When preparing for your discussion post on this case, it is recommended that you read through it several times. Read through it the first time to familiarize yourself with the prompt. On the second reading, consider your assigned role in the situation, and let that guide your perspective. Look deeper at the details: facts, problems, organizational goals, objectives, policies, strategies. Next, consider the concepts, theories, tools and research you need to use to address the issues presented. Then, complete any research, analysis, calculations, or graphing to support your decisions and make recommendations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION What first comes to mind when you hear the term sustainability? Do you envision a family living off the land in Alaska? As more organizations embrace corporate social responsibility (CSR), more evidence is available to support the belief that there can be a business case for sustainability. But what has the research shown? DISCUSSION PROMPT After completing the module’s reading and watching the video, complete the tasks below. Tasks: Complete the following: Describe two possible ethical issues that Sustainable Goods (company from your Final Project) could face based on cultural differences that might lead to unethical employee behavior and how to mitigate the risk of each. Analyze the two countries you selected for your Final Project. State at the top three reasons that there would NOT be a business case for sustainability in each of your countries (you need three reasons for each country). Support your analysis with scholarly evidence. This is an opportunity for you to conduct a counter-thesis analysis and help mitigate the likelihood of a biased analysis of your two countries. How would you measure how sustainable your Final Project company Sustainable Goods business practices are? Cite at least three measures that you would use and how you would collect the data (what data and how often you would collect it). When responding to at least two classmates, provide substantive feedback on why there is a business case for sustainability in your peer’s two countries. You must support your response to your peer with well-researched information. Ensure you support your responses with scholarly reference material using APA formatting. EVALUATION See associated rubric. Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you post it. When you are ready to post, click on the “Create Thread” button for a new thread or “Reply” to respond to a previous post. Then, copy/paste the text from your document into the message field, and click “Submit.” 0 0 0 M8D1: Where is My Stuff Made? INSTRUCTIONS When preparing for your discussion post on this case, it is recommended that you read through it several times. Read through it the first time to familiarize yourself with the prompt. On the second reading, consider your assigned role in the situation, and let that guide your perspective. Look deeper at the details: facts, problems, organizational goals, objectives, policies, strategies. Next, consider the concepts, theories, tools and research you need to use to address the issues presented. Then, complete any research, analysis, calculations, or graphing to support your decisions and make recommendations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION SIf you look at the packaging material of a product in a store, you can often find what country that the product is made in…or so we think. Does that country source mean that all parts of the product originated in that country? It is unlikely. Have you ever seen an advertisement that says, “Made in America?” Earlier in this course, we covered sourcing, or where materials come from to make a product. DISCUSSION PROMPT After completing the module’s reading, complete the tasks below. Tasks: Complete the following: Select a product you routinely purchase and research where all the raw materials used to make AND package that item come from. List each material and its country of origin. How can you verify the country of origin of a raw material? You should conduct some research on techniques used by various international businesses. How does a company’s choice of sources (country) for raw materials impact their marketing strategy for their products? Do you think that the source of raw materials affects how a company markets their product in different countries (i.e. – would they market the product differently in the UK as opposed to Peru?)? Why or why not? When responding to at least two classmates, provide substantive feedback on your peer’s countries of origin. Can you find evidence that one or more of their raw materials may not be produced in the country they stated? You must support your response to your peer with well-researched information. Ensure you support your responses with scholarly reference material using APA formatting. EVALUATION See associated rubric. Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you post it. When you are ready to post, click on the “Create Thread” button for a new thread or “Reply” to respond to a previous post. Then, copy/paste the text from your document into the message field, and click “Submit.” 0