Homework Solution: 1. The performance of a client-server system is strongly influenced by two major network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how…

    1. The performance of a client-server system is strongly influenced by two major network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how many bits/sec it can transport) and the latency (that is, how many seconds it takes for the first bit to get from the client to the server). Give an example of a network that exhibits high bandwidth but also high latency. Then give an example of one that has both low bandwidth and low latency. 2. What are two reasons for using layered protocols? What is one possible disadvantage of using layered protocols? 3. What is the main difference between TCP and UDP? 4. An image is 1600 × 1200 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the image is uncompressed. How long does it take to transmit it over a 56-kbps modem channel? Over a 1-Mbps cable modem? 5. Calculate the end-to-end transit time for a packet for both GEO (altitude: 35,800 km), MEO (altitude: 18,000 km) and LEO (altitude: 750 km) satellites. 6. Three packet-switching networks each contain n nodes. The first network has a star topology with a central switch, the second is a (bidirectional) ring, and the third is fully interconnected, with a wire from every node to every other node. What are the best-, average-, and worst-case transmission paths in hops?

    Expert Answer

     
    Q3. TCP
    1. TCP is the short form of Transmission Control Protocol.

    1. The achievement of a client-server plan is strongly influenced by brace elder network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how sundry morsels/sec it can enravishment) and the latency (that is, how sundry succors it catchs restraint the restraintemost morsel to acquire from the client to the server). Communicate an illustration of a network that exhibits eminent bandwidth still so eminent latency. Then communicate an illustration of single that has twain frugal bandwidth and frugal latency.

    2. What are brace reasons restraint using layered protocols? What is single practicable hindrance of using layered protocols?

    3. What is the ocean contrariety among TCP and UDP?

    4. An conception is 1600 × 1200 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the conception is uncompressed. How covet does it catch to impel it balance a 56-kbps modem tool? Balance a 1-Mbps cable modem?

    5. Calculate the end-to-end transit space restraint a packet restraint twain GEO (altitude: 35,800 km), MEO (altitude: 18,000 km) and LEO (altitude: 750 km) escort.

    6. Three packet-switching networks each include n nodes. The restraintemost network has a celebrity topology with a mediate switch, the succor is a (bidirectional) resonance, and the third is easily interconnected, with a wire from entire node to entire other node. What are the best-, average-, and worst-case transmission paths in hops?

    Expert Apology

     

    Q3.

    TCP

    1. TCP is the narrow restraintm of Transmission Control Protocol.
    2. It is a protocol which is junction oriented.
    3. It is past used restraint applications which scarcity past reliability and space to impel is referable attributable attributable attributable that precarious.
    4. It impels packet slower than UDP does.
    5. It is guaranteed that the packet achieve get at the application.
    6. It is used by protocols enjoy HTTP and Telnet.
    7. It has header dimension of 20 bytes.
    8. TCP has supply restraint fault checking and reporting if scarcityed.
    9. It has segments restraint acknowledgement.
    10. It establishes junction with a three fashion handshaking.

    UDP

    1. TCP is the narrow restraintm of Transmission User Datagram Protocol.
    2. It is a protocol which is junctionless.
    3. It is used in applications where wild transmission is scarcityed.
    4. It impels packet wilder than TCP does.
    5. It is unsure if the packet achieve get at the application or referable attributable attributable.
    6. It is used by protocols DHCP and VOIP.
    7. It has header dimension of 8 bytes.
    8. It has supply restraint fault checking still referable attributable attributable attributable restraint reporting.
    9. It has no segments restraint acknowledgement.
    10. UDP uses a undesigning transmission standard with no involved hand-shaking dialogues.