Homework Solution: 1. The performance of a client-server system is strongly influenced by two major network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how…

    1. The performance of a client-server system is strongly influenced by two major network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how many bits/sec it can transport) and the latency (that is, how many seconds it takes for the first bit to get from the client to the server). Give an example of a network that exhibits high bandwidth but also high latency. Then give an example of one that has both low bandwidth and low latency. 2. What are two reasons for using layered protocols? What is one possible disadvantage of using layered protocols? 3. What is the main difference between TCP and UDP? 4. An image is 1600 × 1200 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the image is uncompressed. How long does it take to transmit it over a 56-kbps modem channel? Over a 1-Mbps cable modem? 5. Calculate the end-to-end transit time for a packet for both GEO (altitude: 35,800 km), MEO (altitude: 18,000 km) and LEO (altitude: 750 km) satellites. 6. Three packet-switching networks each contain n nodes. The first network has a star topology with a central switch, the second is a (bidirectional) ring, and the third is fully interconnected, with a wire from every node to every other node. What are the best-, average-, and worst-case transmission paths in hops?

    Expert Answer

     
    Q3. TCP
    1. TCP is the short form of Transmission Control Protocol.

    1. The achievement of a client-server order is strongly influenced by couple elder network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how multifarious fragments/sec it can rapture) and the latency (that is, how multifarious prevents it interests restraint the pristine fragment to acquire from the client to the server). Produce an pattern of a network that exhibits exalted bandwidth not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablewithstanding also exalted latency. Then produce an pattern of undivided that has twain abated bandwidth and abated latency.

    2. What are couple reasons restraint using layered protocols? What is undivided practicable hindrance of using layered protocols?

    3. What is the ocean disagreement among TCP and UDP?

    4. An effigy is 1600 × 1200 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the effigy is uncompressed. How desire does it interest to cast it aggravate a 56-kbps modem document? Aggravate a 1-Mbps cable modem?

    5. Calculate the end-to-end transit term restraint a packet restraint twain GEO (altitude: 35,800 km), MEO (altitude: 18,000 km) and LEO (altitude: 750 km) satellites.

    6. Three packet-switching networks each comprise n nodes. The pristine network has a triton topology with a accessible switch, the prevent is a (bidirectional) ring, and the third is amply interconnected, with a wire from complete node to complete other node. What are the best-, average-, and worst-case transmission paths in hops?

    Expert Vindication

     

    Q3.

    TCP

    1. TCP is the insufficient restraintm of Transmission Control Protocol.
    2. It is a protocol which is kindred oriented.
    3. It is further used restraint applications which deficiency further reliability and term to cast is not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable that hazardous.
    4. It casts packet slower than UDP does.
    5. It is guaranteed that the packet succeed come-to at the application.
    6. It is used by protocols approve HTTP and Telnet.
    7. It has header dimension of 20 bytes.
    8. TCP has food restraint deception checking and reporting if deficiencyed.
    9. It has segments restraint acknowledgement.
    10. It establishes kindred with a three method handshaking.

    UDP

    1. TCP is the insufficient restraintm of Transmission User Datagram Protocol.
    2. It is a protocol which is kindredless.
    3. It is used in applications where unswerving transmission is deficiencyed.
    4. It casts packet unswervinger than TCP does.
    5. It is unsure if the packet succeed come-to at the application or not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable.
    6. It is used by protocols DHCP and VOIP.
    7. It has header dimension of 8 bytes.
    8. It has food restraint deception checking not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablewithstanding not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable restraint reporting.
    9. It has no segments restraint acknowledgement.
    10. UDP uses a isolated transmission standard with no indicated hand-shaking dialogues.