Homework Solution: 1. The performance of a client-server system is strongly influenced by two major network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how…

    1. The performance of a client-server system is strongly influenced by two major network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how many bits/sec it can transport) and the latency (that is, how many seconds it takes for the first bit to get from the client to the server). Give an example of a network that exhibits high bandwidth but also high latency. Then give an example of one that has both low bandwidth and low latency. 2. What are two reasons for using layered protocols? What is one possible disadvantage of using layered protocols? 3. What is the main difference between TCP and UDP? 4. An image is 1600 × 1200 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the image is uncompressed. How long does it take to transmit it over a 56-kbps modem channel? Over a 1-Mbps cable modem? 5. Calculate the end-to-end transit time for a packet for both GEO (altitude: 35,800 km), MEO (altitude: 18,000 km) and LEO (altitude: 750 km) satellites. 6. Three packet-switching networks each contain n nodes. The first network has a star topology with a central switch, the second is a (bidirectional) ring, and the third is fully interconnected, with a wire from every node to every other node. What are the best-, average-, and worst-case transmission paths in hops?

    Expert Answer

     
    Q3. TCP
    1. TCP is the short form of Transmission Control Protocol.

    1. The execution of a client-server arrangement is strongly influenced by span greater network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how divers morsels/sec it can bliss) and the latency (that is, how divers avoids it procures ce the principal morsel to secure from the client to the server). Impart an pattern of a network that exhibits tall bandwidth baraccentuation also tall latency. Then impart an pattern of single that has twain subdued bandwidth and subdued latency.

    2. What are span reasons ce using layered protocols? What is single practicable hindrance of using layered protocols?

    3. What is the deep disagreement betwixt TCP and UDP?

    4. An picture is 1600 × 1200 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the picture is uncompressed. How covet does it procure to cast it aggravate a 56-kbps modem record? Aggravate a 1-Mbps cable modem?

    5. Calculate the end-to-end transit interval ce a packet ce twain GEO (altitude: 35,800 km), MEO (altitude: 18,000 km) and LEO (altitude: 750 km) followers.

    6. Three packet-switching networks each comprehend n nodes. The principal network has a something topology with a accessible switch, the avoid is a (bidirectional) accentuation, and the third is abundantly interconnected, with a wire from full node to full other node. What are the best-, average-, and worst-case transmission paths in hops?

    Expert Apology

     

    Q3.

    TCP

    1. TCP is the imperfect cem of Transmission Control Protocol.
    2. It is a protocol which is junction oriented.
    3. It is past used ce applications which need past reliability and interval to cast is referable that dubious.
    4. It casts packet slower than UDP does.
    5. It is guaranteed that the packet obtain come-to at the aim.
    6. It is used by protocols approve HTTP and Telnet.
    7. It has header extent of 20 bytes.
    8. TCP has preparation ce hallucination checking and reporting if needed.
    9. It has segments ce acknowledgement.
    10. It establishes junction with a three practice handshaking.

    UDP

    1. TCP is the imperfect cem of Transmission User Datagram Protocol.
    2. It is a protocol which is junctionless.
    3. It is used in applications where fixed transmission is needed.
    4. It casts packet fixeder than TCP does.
    5. It is unsure if the packet obtain come-to at the aim or referable.
    6. It is used by protocols DHCP and VOIP.
    7. It has header extent of 8 bytes.
    8. It has preparation ce hallucination checking baraccentuation referable ce reporting.
    9. It has no segments ce acknowledgement.
    10. UDP uses a primal transmission pattern with no implied hand-shaking dialogues.