Fossil Analysis Paper Fossil Analysis This assignment fulfills two roles in this course: as a written paper and your final exam. This assignment is worth 20% of your grade Goal The purpose of this assignment is to get you to apply what you have learned during the second and third units of this course. Using information about, primate and hominin anatomy and behaviors you will evaluate the description of a hypothetical fossil described below and explain to your reader what these skeletal characteristics tell you about the potential behavior of these fossilized skeletons. Instructions The year is 2018. You are a paleoanthropological graduate student working in east Africa. While excavating the Kibish Formation near the Omo River you and your team discover over two-hundred fossilized bones representing as many as 17 individuals. The fossil remains include both adults and youngsters. The sediments date to between 2.8-3 million years old. Your first assessment suggests they could be possible human ancestors (hominins). The skeletons have the following characteristics: Skull Centralized foramen magnum Brain size around 600 cubic centimeters Face is prognathic Dentition (Teeth): Mandible and maxilla teeth show apical (grinding) wear lack diastemas medium-small canines large flat molars with rounded cusps The teeth show a microscopic wear pattern of light scratching Post-cranial characteristics: The skeletons show arms slightly longer than their legs curved phalanges muscle attachment indicates precision grip A bowl-like pelvis short robust illium curves front to back a short robust ischium Femur with a long femoral neck obturator externus groove Foot with a convergent toe The male skeletons are approximately 20 percent larger than the female. Paleo-environmental Data Analysis of the fossilized pollen you collected from your site suggests the environment these fossils lived in consisted of pockets of wooded areas, interspersed throughout a large open grassy landscape. The wooded areas offered a variety of trees and shrubs that appeal to a range of insects, birds and small mammals as well as many potential predators. Artifacts found at the site Located at the same site, you also found some rocks These rocks show battered, sharp edges the rocks are not uniform but vary in size and shape Near the rocks you found some highly fractured animal bones mostly leg bones skulls Under a microscope the animal leg and skull bones show long abrasions the sides of the abrasions are parallel to each other Based on the data presented above, you will need to describe the skeletal characteristics of your find and discuss what these skeletal characteristics tell you about the potential behavior of these fossil individuals. Using the information above as clues, analyze and discuss the following five factors. Please head each section of your analysis with the behavior you are analyzing. Each section is worth 18 points: The mode of locomotion for these fossil specimens When alive, how did these fossils move about the environment? The diet of these fossil specimens what kind of food did they eat? Possible tool use for these specimens are the rocks tools? if so, what kind? what were the used for? What was the potential social structure and mating pattern for these specimens? The taxonomy and binomial nomenclature of these specimens. Assign them to a taxonomic group (tribe, genus, species) You can assume all of the skeletons belong to the same tribe, genus, species Use popper binomial nomenclature (i.e. yours is Homo sapiens). When discussing the possible anatomical and social behaviors of these fossils, please consult your book and past readings in the Primate and Hominin sections of the course. It is here that you will find clues to the possible “behaviors” of your fossils. Remember to support your discussion with evidence from the readings as well as the described skeletal characteristics above. Do not just list or briefly discuss possible anatomical/social behaviors. For example if you think the rocks are tools, why do think so, how do you know? If you think the these fossils are hominins how do you know this? Please take the perspective that YOU are the teacher and I am your student. When you write to your audience (me) you can assume I am an educated individual but I do not have any knowledge of this topic. Therefore, in your paper, you will need to educate your reader as to why the skeletal anatomy and rocks, suggest certain behaviors. Providing evidence for your discussion is the difference between an A/B paper and a C paper (or lower)! Useful readings include: Primate Social Systems/Communication Primate Mating Systems Primates as Models for Early Human Behavior Comparative Anatomy Australopithecine and Early homo lectures You will be graded on how effectively you analyze your fossils and address the topics mentioned in the ass

    Fossils: The Kibish Figure Skeletons

    Introduction

    According to the protracted recognition on fashion by Charles Darwin, coupled to the unifying ingredient that has been discovered with i-elation to late biology, perfect kind are cognate to single another enjoy cousins, sisters, brothers and indistinct in an increasingly immense “Nobility Tree of Life”. The implications and observations that keep been discovered aggravate spell designate that it is feasible to perceive a niggardly source if handyness and nature perfectowed loreers to end remote abundance. This links referable attributable attributable attributable expected to originate barely in rational beside too among the rational nature and other buildation organisms. In nature, the proximate evolutionary nobility cognate to the late rational life is the interposed of the hominoids nobility in a order designated primates, niggardlyly referred to as “lesser apes” such as the gibbons and the Siangs as polite-behaved-mannered-mannered as protracteder apes such as the bonobos, the chimpanzees, gorillas and the Orangutans. They are indeed the most relishly rational sources according to the evolutionary plea. Lore and handy surveys relishness a bar kindred in the DNA build in these hominoids and that or the late monstrosity. This designates a bar kindred among the fossils of the 17 indivisible build in the Kibish Figure the skeletal figure as polite-behaved-mannered-mannered as DNA of the late rational life (Homo sapiens). This dissection is installed on perceiveings of the skeletons build in the Kibish Figure nigh the Omo River in Ethiopia.

    The cranial and skeletons existing settlements discovered in the Kibish figure consists of skeletal compatforce that after the dissection was build to resemble bodies of 17 indivisibles. The perceiveings apprehend cranial, compatforce enjoy the visage and the monstrositydible, postcranial elements, ribs and allot compatforce including legs and conflict. The conducive dating techniques revere that the build fossils resemble a order of Hominins that lived among 2.8 and 3 darling years gone. The cranial and allot bones that were discovered in the Kibish figure keep a estimate of features that clexisting places it among the realms of the Homo sapiens dissection, usually identified as the late monstrosity. Such features apprehend a absolute visage, a unnaturalnessifest chin and a noble coercionehead. Lore has build similarities in these fossils such as the thicker skull and a sloped coercionehead and other features which keep been build to be within the file of alteration coercion the existing Homo sapiens nature. Loreers consider these indivisibles to be allot of the earliest sources of the late monstrosity due to other features that can too be linked to the kind including footprints as polite-behaved-mannered-mannered as a repress perceiveing of a unmeasured skeleton of a fossil nicknamed `Lucy’.

    The jurisprudence of passage is considerd to be bipedal with an restitution of indelicate-legged walling that is appearanced by the certainty that the fossils had rational-enjoy features in the allots including the certainty that they had desireer front allots compared to the inversion allots (Fleagle et al, 364). As such, they could stride spontaneously on either the indelicate allots or on two after allots. The femurs (Tnoble bones Designate the restraintce to stride from the certainty that they are slanted towards the elbow. The closeness of a dominant arrogant toe is referable attributable attributable attributable opposable when it comes to the restraintce of the kind to stride. Powerful desire coercioneconflict and shortened tnoble bones, winding desire fingers and toe bones designate a primate as it could verification the coercionm conflict as legs of climbing livelihood. The fossil seems to keep had a hearty monstrositydible and maxilla. With the apical waste perchance from gnawing and overpowering, coupled with the closing of diastemas relishnesss an carnal that verificationd its teeth coercion twain overpowering and dissolution. In restitution, they had medium-smperfect canniness, extensive absolute molars and rounded cusps. The jaws are unusually narrowed with the teeth arranged in rows. This is telling of an carnal whose viands apprehendd twain carnals (Fruit and plants). Viands

    According to the pollen that was unmoved on standing, the kind is considerd to keep conditional a file of corporeal locations and environments encircling the extensiver East African portion including Kenya and Congo. These environments are predominantly build in the savannah portion, with close thicketlands and close coercionests. The area too lies in the Rift Valley vault that is settlement to a army of lakes. The dissection of the matter figure, teeth and the skull designates of a viands that largely interposed of plants. It too heartyly suggests a indicative total of viandss that apprehendd fruit. The inappreciable dissection of the samples designates that the viands was predominantly cool of leaves rather than seeds.

    Researchers too build bones chiefly allots with revelations that seemed to keep been caused by a pointed border. The probpower is too a rocky area which suggests that the kind would barely keep crafted their tools either from thicket or rocks (Fleagle et al, 365). In restitution, smperfect stony tool-enjoy rocks were unmoved at the spectacle. Certaintys encircling political erection and mating can be build from appearance build in the pelvis. The pelvis plays a clew role in the migratory and reproductive functions in rational lifes. A bowl- – enjoy pelvic figure designates that the kind could stride sound with an painstaking proceeding and that it had the restraintce to maximize the muscle levers to perfectow reproductive processes. In restitution, the pelvis is of test width and elongation as that of the late rational life telling of the restraintce to methodize matter air sound enjoy a rational life. The pelvic morphology relishnesss that the kind could yield extraction regularly extraneously there life a insecurity to the offshoot. As per the granted certaintys, former reports and late lore, the kind taxonomy and nomenclature classifies it as the forerunner of the late Homo sapiens.

    Works Cited

    Fleagle, John G., et al. “Paleoanthropology of the Kibish Figure, southern Ethiopia: an commencement.” Journal of rational evolution 55.3 (2008): 360-365.