COURSE OVERVIEW The purpose of this course is to prepare you for your master’s thesis or doctoral dissertation. You will be preparing to write your literature review in the space of this course. By the end of the course, you will submit a completed research critique, which analyzes all major aspects of a research article. In this way, you will be prepared to locate and assess the quality and significance of research articles which will inform your literature review. Many students ask how long a literature review is “supposed to be.” This is up to you and dependent upon your topic. You can always research any topic more; you could spend your whole life researching one question alone (and some do). So at some point, you must arbitrarily cut your research off, as it were, or it could go on indefinitely. Cut it too short, however, and you will miss valuable information that really belongs in your lit review. A balance is needed here. What does that equal out to be in page numbers? Realistically, this could mean anything from about 6 pages on the very low end, to upwards of 60 pages or more. What is a literature review? Review this description: http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/literature-reviews/ WEEK 1 This week, we’re going to become familiar with resources that may help you with your research. You’re also going to be learning what makes sound research. The main resources that you will need will be: (1) peer-reviewed journal articles, (2) books, and (3) the ability to cite references correctly in APA format, for which you may uses a citation generator. The components to sound research we’ll be going over include (a) significance of the study, (b) methodology, (c) theory, and (d) validity and reliability. Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles Now, many of you are familiar with IAU’s online library database, LIRN, which you can access from IAU’s website. This is a great resource because many journal articles aren’t free; since IAU pays the LIRN database fees for you, this is a free service for you, allowing you access to tens of thousands of articles that you may otherwise be locked out of. Yet, for all its utility, LIRN and other library databases can be cumbersome. Without the right key terms in the right place, you may miss something simply because you didn’t know how to search for it. This is why I recommend starting with Google Scholar and then turning to LIRN when necessary. So what is Google Scholar? Surprisingly, many people don’t know about it. It’s essentially Google’s free academic library database. Simply go to: https://scholar.google.com/ Enter in a key word or term that you’re interested in studying. Let’s say… “employee attrition.” Imagine you want to know why employees leave places of employment and go to other jobs. On the flipside, you could search for “employee retention,” if you were trying to understand why employees stay. Go ahead and perform the search for “employee attrition.” Now you will see a number of articles appear below. Some of these you will have access to (via PDF or HTML) and others you will be locked out of. If you click on an article and it states that you have to pay, at this point I recommend going to LIRN and looking for the article there. Chances are, you may find it for free through that database. Be aware that you can limit your search to a certain timeframe (see left panel). You can sort by date or sort by relevance. You generally want to keep your articles limited to the last ten years (unless you’re doing historic research) because too far back and articles lose their relevance. It’s like bringing up a topic in a conversation with your friends that you already finished discussing, and acting like it’s a new idea. You’d get some looks from your friends, and you’d get the same kind of ‘looks’ from the academic community. Stay relevant. Or justify why you aren’t (à la: Hey friends, I know we discussed this already, but I’m just not resolved about it…Do you think this [new idea] could be happening regarding that [old topic]?) Books As you research your topic, you’re also going to want to check out some books. You won’t have time to read the whole thing, but you don’t really have to. Often the type of information you may be looking for can be found in a paragraph or a few pages. Now, where to go to look for books? …You guessed it. Google has a book database, just as it has an article database. You can access it here: https://books.google.com/ Try the same search in Google Books (“employee attrition”). See all the lovely results? Now, when would you use an article over a book, or a book over an article? Generally speaking, books are great for broad, general information (e.g. the history of a topic, the working definition of a theory or methodology), while articles are better for specific information (e.g. what happened qualitatively in one study, or some specific numbers from one quantitative analysis). Citation Generator Finally, you may want to use a citation generator. The generator is optional; the APA references are not. You can cite your references with help (citation generator) or you can do it manually (in which case, I’d reference the Owl at Purdue APA Guide). If you’d like to use a generator, there are many to choose from, but you could start with the one below: http://www.citationmachine.net/ Be sure to choose APA format, and then select your medium type (e.g. article, book, etc.). Then you can search by title and the fields will auto-fill, or you can fill in the blanks manually. Then click “Final Step” and “Create Citation,” and you’re done. NOTE: Before selecting “Create Citation,” you can omit the DOI information. The only time I’d use DOI is if the article was found ONLY online, and is NOT available offline. Most of the time, this isn’t the case. You may also use this software to track your research and citations: https://www.zotero.org/ WHAT MAKES SOUND RESEARCH? Now that you have a good sense of your resources and references, let’s get to what makes sound research. Like I said, we’ll be focusing on: (a) significance of the study, (b) methodology, (c) theory, and (d) validity and reliability. Significance of the Study A good study will not just be applicable to you personally, but to others in your field. For instance, if you’re studying business, a poor research question would be: How can I increase sales at Thai Sky Restaurant from $64,000/year to $98,000/year? …Because this only applies to you, to your personal restaurant business. A better research question would be: How to identify and weed out hidden costs in a small-scale restaurant business? Now, this is not a perfect research question either, because several terms here are unclear, and ambiguity is a big enemy in research! But I hope you’re able to see the difference in applicability here, at least: The first question is applicable only to you; the second question is applicable to many. For more information on sound research questions, you may reference the following: http://www.socscidiss.bham.ac.uk/research-question.html Relevance of your study: “Relevance” means it is timely. People are interested in it NOW. As an example, World War I is “significant,” but it is not so much “relevant” now. Research on WWI would suddenly become “relevant” however IF someone JUST discovered a mass grave of bodies that people did not know of before. Because that would change the way we understand history, changing the significance of what we understood before. Now…for your assignment this week: references and citation provided to use Assignment 1: (1 page) Find an article on Google Scholar. Cite it in APA format. Then write a few sentences identifying the stated 1. significance (historical context) and 2. relevance (current context) of the study. The author(s) of the paper should make these clear in the introduction. As an example, let’s imagine we looked at an article on how video-on-demand (VOD) systems are threatening the movie theatre industry. Zhu, K. (2001). Internet-based Distribution of Digital Videos: The Economic Impacts of Digitization on the Motion Picture Industry. Electronic Markets, 11(4), 273-280. The significance of the study might be: movie theatres have captured our attention (been in business) for over two hundred years, yet we may soon be saying our farewell (goodbye) to them. [This is how it’s a classic, old, or important, topic.] The relevance might be: In the last few years, many have said that VOD technology will likely kill our movie theatres. But could VOD technology actually help keep movie theatres alive? [This is how this topic is new, fresh, or interesting.] Just post the significance and relevance in a few sentences here. Assignment 2: (2 pages) SHORT PAPER. Interview your Faculty Mentor or another person who has completed a doctorate degree. Ask the following questions: 1. How did you start your research project? 2. What specific tools did you use? 3. How did you gain your expertise with the various tools you used? 4. What are some important experiences you suggest for a beginning researcher? 5. If I wanted to learn how to become a competent researcher, what specific tools would you suggest I work with?

    Skilled Elimination (Planning and Design)

    Article: Leedy, P. D., & Ormrod, J. E. 2010. Skilled Elimination: Artificening and Design.

    Historical Context

    In the spent, the promise elimination has had close meanings that accept made it spent confusing pauseraint case to the eliminationers and university students. This has led to them to subjoin spent to comprehend the promise in a pincheder and exstrike sensation (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). Pauseraint some physical schools and colleges, the students accept heard the promise elimination as regularity used as a expression that represents various strikeivities suitableness others accept considered it as a expression used to represent the strike of vestibule referablees and pieces of advice that are then used to transcribe elimination papers. It has so been considered in the spent as an strike of informing others and undividedself environing what undivided comprehends and what they do refercogent comprehend. The promise elimination has been used in the spent in speeches and very scant mass accept the authentic proposal of what it resources.

    Current Context

    Elimination has had a irrelative comprehending succeeding a pinched and exstrike sensation of comprehending the promise. Elimination, ce-this-reason, is the invaricogent mode or system group, examining and deciphering postulates or advice in direct to growth an comprehending and bestow a unobstructed statue of the phenomenon that undivided is anxiety or assiduous with (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). This ce-this-reason has been used as a invaricogent method of solving examples in the day to day lives of the mass. Elimination starts with a true unanswered theme or example and then bestows a unobstructed articulation of the objectives and goals.

    A elimination should distribute a leading example into sub-problems that are spent tractable. Full elimination should be influenced local themes, examples or fancy. Elimination requires a local artifice pauseraint a ameliorate procedure to be carried quenched. Pauseraint a elimination to be prosperous it must pause on true censorious assumptions that conquer bestow direction to the eliminationers. This, ce-this-reason, conceives assumptions that may refercogent equal be protected by the advice that reflects succeeding the elimination. The eliminationer needs to infer the postulates and undertake to decipher the postulates in a method that it is cogent to explain the example that led to the elimination. Ce-this-reason, elimination is a mode that is cyclical or spent helical. This is accordingly full elimination starts simply and then follows with invaricogent tramps of elimination.

    Elimination Scheme Interview

    Scheme Initiation

    According to the eliminationer, the disposition of full elimination scheme revolves encircling the example that leads to the elimination. In direct to Start a elimination scheme, there are fictions that undivided needs to comprehend. The primary tramp when propeling quenched a elimination scheme is to establish the example of elimination having determined clarity and ce-this-reason regularity cogent to bestow a unobstructed and exstrike expression environing the example.

    It is essential to comprehend that the advice subjoined is regularity used to penetrate its aid to the explanation of the undiminished example and refercogent the covet to obtain spent comprehendledge through the advice (Dawson, 2009). This is through condensing local thoughts connected to the scheme that bestows spent proposals. Now that you can establish firm proposals, propel quenched a proemial elimination. This conquer conceive an anatomy of the elimination cat's-paws and the local themes that add to elimination. Succeeding the proemial results, undivided is ce-this-reason, cogent to bestow a unobstructed limitation of the elimination scheme and how the procedure artifices of the scheme accept been structured.

    Elimination Cat's-paws

    The cat's-paws of elimination that are used in the elimination schemes be on their order. These are the strategies that are used to infer, decipher and manage postulates. There are true cat's-paws of elimination that accept been used by the eliminationer in his scheme. These conceive:

    The library and its Resources

    According to the eliminationer, the library was essential in his elimination accordingly he was cogent to advance and lodge advice faster inattentive of the theme he was minute pauseraint. It was a valucogent cat's-paw to him accordingly there were catalogs availcogent on the internet that supposing spent apt advice that has been fundd in the spent.

    Computer Technology

    According to him, the computer has been a elimination ally in a estimate of methods that accept qualifyd him fund, manage and decipher the postulates infered (Verschuren et., al 2010). It has qualifyd him to artifice through a software that can frame proposals and concepts pauseraint the elimination standpoint and how well-mannered-mannered the elimination scheme can be conducted. It has qualifyd the scheme superintendence protection through coordination of irrelative achievement efforts. It has supposing a establishedting learning reconsideration through describing of connected exoteric eliminationers. It has qualifyd him to propel quenched other strikeivities such as the representative product, experimental influence, reconnoitre dispensation, postulates inferion, message, statistical protection and publishing protection.

    Statistics

    In kinsman to his elimination scheme, the eliminationer says that statistics accept aided him represent the postulates and so drag inferences from the advice (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). This has conceived the picturesque statistics that accept supposing the regularity of the postulates and the deductive statistics that accept aided the eliminationer in deciding environing the postulates.

    Expertise with the Various Cat's-paws Used

    Undivided of the principal fiction that growthd his expertise in using the elimination cat's-paws, is the ability to adviser, vestige and rehearse the cat's-paws. This conquer encogent undivided subjoin and frame the proposals and editing them to be cogent to cater a exstrike elimination. Comprehending the role of each cat's-paw in the elimination and how it aids search the elimination ground was another method of increasing expertise with the cat's-paws.

    Suggestion pauseraint Beginning Eliminationer

    Restraint a tyro propeling quenched elimination, it is essential to accept a diplomacy of how elimination is carried quenched. This conceives stating the example, looking at the elimination cat's-paws encircling you, directing the elimination themes, letter the assumptions and represent the significance of the elimination scheme. This conquer be essential to influence the tyro in comprehending their goals and objectives suitableness propeling quenched the elimination.

    Misspend Elimination Cat's-paws

    The computer technology and statistics are the most misspend cat's-paws suitableness propeling quenched elimination. This is accordingly the computer conquer be cogent to frame, infer and decipher the postulates environing solving the example. This is a established of software’s that are inveterate on the computer. Statistics conquer bestow the regularity of the postulates and so aid in firmness making suitableness infering and deciphering the postulates.

    References

    Dawson, C. (2009). Introduction to elimination systems: A skilled influence pauseraint anyundivided undervestibule a elimination scheme. Hachette UK.

    Leedy, P. D., & Ormrod, J. E. 2010. Skilled Elimination: Artificening and Design.

    Verschuren, P., Doorewaard, H., & Mellion, M. (2010). Designing a elimination scheme (Vol. 2). The Hague: Elequal International Publishing.