ARTH  242  –  Introduction  to  the  History  of  Photography         Assignment  #2     Distributed  Oct  12  in  OnQ     DUE  Oct  26th  ,  5:30  pm.       This  assignment  is  worth  20%  of  your  total  grade.     1000  –  1250  words  (approx.  4-­‐5  pages  double  spaced,  12pt)       Please  submit  via  the  OnQ  dropbox.  Anything  handed  in  late  (after  8:30pm  October  26th)  will   have  5%  a  day  taken  off  the  assignment.  It  will  be  graded  with  a  letter  grade  (A,  B+,  B-­‐,  etc),  so   the  5%  can  add  up  fast  and  make  the  difference  between  a  A-­‐  and  a  B  in  a  very  short  period  of   time.       Assignment:     Let’s  imagine…  You  and  your  classmates  have  been  approached  by  BBC  America  for  a  joint   project  they  are  working  on  about  the  “Birth  of  Photography”.  For  the  first  installment,  they   want  to  examine  the  early  history  of  the  medium  (pre  “wet-­‐plate”),  looking  beyond  the  usual   names  of  Niepce,  Daguerre,  Talbot,  even  Hippoltype  Bayard,  to  show  the  complexity  of   photography  –  especially  between  1830s  –  1850s.  The  show’s  researchers  have  offered  up  a  list   of  8  names  that  they  have  heard  about,  but  don’t  really  know  too  much  about  in  terms  of  the   context/importance  of  these  names  to  the  history  of  photography.  They  are  seeking  your   opinion!  As  a  fun  twist,  they  will  be  awarding  a  post-­‐humous  award  of  “Unsung  Pioneering   Achievement  in  the  History  of  Photography”  to  one  of  the  short-­‐listed  candidates  noted  below.   Here  are  the  names  they  have  identified:     Sir  John  Herschel   Edgar  Allen  Poe   Hercules  Florence   Samuel  F.  B.  Morse   Jean-­‐Baptiste  Louis  Gros   Anna  Atkins   Louis  Blanquart-­‐Evrard   John  William  Draper       To  help  decide  a  winner  of  the  BBC  America  “Unsung  Pioneering  Achievement  in  the  History  of   Photography”,  you  will  need  to  choose  1  of  the  candidates,  and  in  1000  –  1250  words   (excluding  foot/end  notes,  captions  and  bibliography),  make  a  case  on  why  your  chosen   ARTH  242  –  Introduction  to  the  History  of  Photography     candidate  deserve  to  win  the  award.  To  make  an  informed  choice  as  a  consultant,  you  will  need   to  conduct  research  in  reliable  online  sources,  in  reference  works,  and/or  in  histories  of   photography,  to  find  out  the  major  impact  on,  or  most  significant  contribution  to,  the  history  of   photography  of  the  candidates.  Consult  MORE  THAN  ONE  source.  You  may  find  discrepancies   between  sources.  We  KNOW  sites  such  as  Wikipedia  and  Answers.com  contain  conflicting,   incorrect,  and/or  incomplete  information.    Also,  be  sure  to  reference  your  choice  to  their  place   given  by  Rosenblum  in  our  course  text  World  History  of  Photography,  as  you  will  likely  be   forming  an  opinion  that  is  beyond  or  even  contrary  to  what  she  writes.       If  you  feel  it  helps  your  case,  you  may  include  up  to  three  images  that  you  can  draw  upon  in   your  argument,  but  be  sure  to  provide  caption  information  (photographer,  title,  date,  format,   and  if  known  size)     Your  assignment  must  include  a  short  bibliography  (at  least  5  sources),  and  be  sure  to   footnote/endnote  if  you  cite  any  sources  in  the  body  of  your  work.  As  for  footnote/bibliography   style,  I  like  Chicago  style  but  please  feel  free  to  use  the  style  you  are  most  comfortable  with,  as   long  as  you  remain  consistent.       Marks  will  be  in  letter  form  (A+,  A,  A-­‐,  B+,  B,  B-­‐,  etc),  but  breakdown  can  be  understood  as   follows:     40  %  -­‐  Research  –  in  addition  to  the  facts  cited  in  your  work,  this  also  includes  the  sources   found  within  the  bibliography  and  references  cited  within  the  paper  itself.     50  %  -­‐  Argument  –  this  is  where  I  expect  to  see  you  counter  Rosenblum’s  position  on  your   candidate  (critical  thinking)  and  demonstrate  your  growing  knowledge  of  photographic  history   by  situating  your  candidate  within  the  larger  history  of  photography.     10  %  –  Style  –  includes  proper  bibliography  and  footnote/endnote  formatting,  as  well  as   spelling  and  grammar. Possible Resources This is a partial list of books that may be of value to you in this 2nd assignment. You may wish to consult material that is not on this short list. Remember – if you cannot find very much (or any reference at all) to your choice in a particular book, draw attention to this omission as part of building your case on why we should pay more attention to the person you selected. Hacking, Juliet, editor. Photography: The Whole Story (New York: Prestel, 2012). Peres, Michael, editor. The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography (Focal Press) – 4th edition was printed in 2007, not sure if there is a newer one, but any edition may still be of value and use. Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography (New York: MOMA). Multiple editions/printings available. Frizot, Michel. The New History of Photography (Konemann, 1998/1999) Warner Marien, Mary. Photography: A Cultural History (Pearson) – 4th edition was printed in 2015, but any edition may still be of value and use. Hannavy, John Encyclopedia of nineteenth century Photography, 2 volumes (Taylor & Francis, 2007).

    History of Photography

    Sir John Herschel

    Sir John Herschel deserves the “Unsung Guideing Achievement in the History of Photography” accord as he exposed a photographic system that urban statues on glass and metal. The system was knconfess as the cyanotype or the bluish-colored-coloredimprint progress. Herschel was a chemist, an astronomer, and English mathematician and so was the son of the far-famed astronomer William Herschel who discovered planet Uranus. Herschel expert to vision his referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablees by enslaved statues by the correction of a pamphlet and transformed them into statues on glass and metal using “hyposulphite soda” that governed as a solvent control silver salts (Schaaf 1979). He so had expert using gallic shrewd becacorrection it was an requisite fluent control the pamphlet correctiond in imprinting photographs.

    The combination was correctiond as a photographic fixer that would steadyly locate statues as it dissolved the silver salts. So, he ensured that the fixer correctiond aided in stabilizing the paints executed portraying a agreeing statue on the objectner correctiond. The pamphlets correctiond in touch imprinting were coated with salts and succeeding washed to induce a pure statued urban on a setting that was ebon bluish-colored-colored. The system alien brushing the pamphlet with a discontinuance of vigorous salts and left to lifeless in the ebon. To achieve an statue a exemplar was located on the pamphlet subordinate frequented sunthoughtless which resulted in the controlmation of a pure statue on a setting that was bluish-colored-colored. He discovered that vigorous would be correctiond unitedly with thoughtless-perceptive materials such as pamphlets to stop statues. The discoverings led to the extinguishedgrowth of the cyanotype which was correctiond by his match guide Anna Atkins. Anna Atkins correctiond the system control her botanicals memorials as she was a botanist and the earliest feminine photographer (Hannavy 2007).

    The cyanotype system was aided by the correction of chemicals such as the ferric ammonium citrate and the potassium Ferro-cyanide that enhanced thoughtless sensitivity on objectners. The systemed was requisite to photographers as some correctiond it to make inexpensive photographs that did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable confound a doom of systemes, touch sheets which we correctiond to imimprint paints and criterion imprints enhancing sparing. The cyanotype system was self-possessed to prepare and exexchange in irrelative controlms becacorrection there was no statue extinguishedgrowth required thus sparing on occasion. The course so did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable scarcity any fixing, and the solely requisite progress was washing the pamphlet control oxidation to conservation locate to product the bluish-colored-colored-colored percussion.

    The progress became favorite unarranged architects and engineers to product bluish-colored-coloredprints or technical drawings. Cyanotype progresss did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable scarcity a ebonroom as there was no statue extinguishedgrowth and equipment required were very minimal. The system became niggardly unarranged photographer imputable to its homely objectner and requirements (Press 2007). The cyanotype led to the extinguishedgrowth of the bluish-colored-coloredimprint system that is correctiond in new-fashioned days. He discovered the cyanotype near other variations, control sample, the “chrysotype.” The photographer carried extinguished irrelative exemplifications using multiform chemicals to discover a system that would product an appealing statue. Herschel enslaved a photograph of glass among scant days succeeding lection Louis-Jacques Objectde Daguerre thread on photography. Obtaining of the paint graphic his excellent creativity and ability to incorporate ideas from his match guides. He corrections the glass photograph to heave extinguished thoughtless exemplifications at irrelative angels. The elimination alien perversion multitude vestibule a keen vigilance in the rays’ reflecting on multiform talents of the spectrum. He referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableed that the beams diminished a perversion of their confess on the photographic pamphlet (Schaaf 1979).

    He correctiond substances approve dyes of irrelative perversions from plants to evaluate the best fixer. The dyes were applied to whiten extinguished emulsion that was referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable correctiond future providing an statue. The system was denominated “anthotype” nevertheless did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable amplify imputable to withdrawal of vigilance. His exemplifications are an token of a photographer who was committed to discovering the best progress to product paints. Herschel wrote a pamphlet “The application of the chemical Rays of thoughtless to the intention of imaginative Offer.” In the pamphlet, Herschel gave the govern of fixing an statue on pamphlet a niggardly spectry that is “Photography” which was acquired from span Greek toils which demonstrate letter and thoughtless. From that, he became the individual who coined the expression photography. He shared the basis with other photographers to adduce them the dropping communication to their photographic systemes of making enslaved statues steady.

    Herschel imprinted a aggregate of eleven pamphlets that explained the chemical he had discovered unitedly with photographic systemes that his elimination had after resisting. Herschel proved to be a huge govern to sundry photographers in irrelative methods. Herschel did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable advise his toil giving method to Talbot and Daguerre exemplification and thread of photography (Crowe 1998).  The photographer did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable objectner control report approve his match guides did nevertheless he had discovered a doom of inseparable instruction. His willingness to aid indicates a guide who was selfless and valued relation to induce extinguished best results. He shared his toil withextinguished any acuteness welcoming photographers from full abextinguished the globe. So, he did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable indisputable whatever he had gathered to fullow other nation to entertain self-possessed adit to the instruction. Herschel never correctiond his discoveries to commission nation through retail governivities or charging match photographer control correction of his concept illustrating his humility. The photographer expert to set-up others through adduceing them discovers that enabled them to perfect their systemes.  

    Herschel was the earliest individual to correction the stipulations “positive” and “negative” in photography. The photographer gave a title that alien a system through which frequented enacted photographs can be achieved. He correctiond statues on the glass control his exemplification which coagulated extinguished to luck. He suggested that the indirect aspect of glass could be correctiond in creating governual photographs or the statues would be held opposing a setting that is end to achieve a enacted. In creating the indirects, he correctiond engraving as the sources of the photos. Regarding the salts correctiond in the pamphlets, Herschel discovered that silver-bromide component would be correctiond in locate of silver salts becacorrection it was over perceptive to thoughtlesss compared to the salts (Gernsheim, 1988).  The photographer was a fond object who expert to after up with multiform options that contributed to the offer of peculiarity photographs.

        Herschel was a amicable individual, and he avoided feuds at any absorb to obey cheerful kindred with other guides in the photographic opportunity. He gave a aiding agency to anysingle who scarcityed it in their exploration to amplify photographs. The photographer was referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable invidious fullowing his friends Talbot and Daguerre to conservation reputation control discovering photography which he had abundantly contributed to. He constantly encouraged others into exploring over abextinguished photographer to prepare a ample pool of ideas that nation would borrow from. Herschel did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable face control applacorrection from nation as he was complacent with the recognition he accepted. This proved that he was a numerous guide whose primitive matter was amplifying and creating photographs.

    References

    Crowe, M. J., Dyck, D. R., & Kevin, J. R. (1998). A calendar of the agreement of Sir John Herschel.

    Gernsheim, H. (1988). The Rise of Photography: 1850-1880, the Age of Collodion (Vol. 2). Thames & Hudson.

    Hacking,    Juliet,    editor.    Photography:    The    Whole    Story    (New    York:    Prestel,    2012).   

    Hannavy,    John    Encyclopedia    of    nineteenth    century    Photography,    2    volumes    (Taylor    &    Francis,    2007

    Newhall,    Beaumont.    The    History    of    Photography    (New    York:    MOMA).    Multiple    editions/printings    suited.   

    Peres,    Michael,    editor.    The    Focal    Encyclopedia    of    Photography    (Focal    Press)    –    4th    edition    was    imprinted    in    2007,    referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable    sure    if    there    is    a    newer    single,    nevertheless    any    edition    may    still    be    of    value    and    correction.   

    Schaaf, L. (1979). Sir John Herschel’s 1839 Royal Society Pamphlet on Photography. History of Photography, 3(1), 47-60.

    Warner    Marien,    Mary.    Photography:    A    Cultural    History    (Pearson)    –    4th    edition    was    imprinted    in    2015,    nevertheless    any    edition    may    still    be    of    value    and    correction.